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Table 3 'Walk-2-Quit' intervention components, aims and content

From: Integrating the promotion of physical activity within a smoking cessation programme: Findings from collaborative action research in UK Stop Smoking Services

Intervention component Aim Content Process and outcome evaluation
Use client-centred approach in clinic. Develop rapport with client, building trust, and shared respect. Effective communication skills. Exhibit empathy, listen, reflect, summarise. Clients individually able to talk about their physical activity and smoking experiences.
Elicit beliefs about quitting and physical activity as a behavioural strategy. Increase self-awareness and build confidence to quit, using behavioural and pharmacological support. Clients identify pros & cons of quitting and aids for quitting. Focus discussion on physical activity through direct and vicarious experiences of clients. Clients identify physical activity as a promising behaviour to aid smoking cessation.
Cognitive processes to promote physical activity as a smoking cessation aid, alongside other aids. Increase pros and reduce cons for physical activity and increase self-efficacy and outcome efficacy. Facilitate client discussions to introduce physical activity as a behaviour that is not just structured exercise, and helps to manage cravings, withdrawal symptoms & weight. Clients increase beliefs in physical activity as a coping strategy and aid to quitting.
Behavioural processes to increase physical activity as a smoking cessation aid, alongside other aids. Develop behavioural strategies to increase physical activity. Set SMART goals with clients to increase physical activity. Think about timing of physical activity, mood and avoiding lapses. Signpost to physical activity/exercise opportunities & remove barriers to do physical activity. Elicit social support for physical activity. Self-monitoring used (e.g. pedometer worn and physical activity diary kept). Rewards and reinforcement contingencies established.
Review and reflect on increased physical activity. Build confidence and perceptions of control, & ability to self-regulate mood and cravings with physical activity. Client reflects on physical activity successes and sets new targets. Identify identity shifts (e.g. smoker to exerciser). Highlight physical activity related mood and well-being. Client increases confidence to do more physical activity and stay quit.