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Table 2 Means (SD) of career success and career support in female and male physicians.

From: The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

  Female physicians Male physicians    
CAREER SUCCESS AND SUPPORT Without children (n = 191) Mean (SD) With children (n = 101) Mean (SD) Total (n = 292) Mean (SD) Without children (n = 177) Mean (SD) With children (n = 110) Mean (SD) Total (n = 287) Mean (SD)    
Objective career success 1.63 (2.00) 1.12 (1.72) 1.46 (1.91) 2.74 (2.89) 2.93 (3.20) 2.81 (3.01)    
Subjective career success 4.53 (1.20) 3.51 (1.54) 4.18 (1.41) 4.61 (1.14) 4.53 (1.20) 4.58 (1.16)    
Satisfaction with own career 5.44 (1.13) 5.05 (1.40) 5.31 (1.24) 5.38 (1.12) 5.27 (1.46) 5.34 (1.26)    
Mentoring experience 1.76 (1.07) 1.39 (0.94) 1.64 (1.04) 2.03 (1.01) 1.89 (1.05) 1.98 (1.03)    
Satisfaction with career support 4.23 (1.63) 3.75 (1.44) 4.07 (1.58) 4.32 (1.58) 4.18 (1.61) 4.26 (1.59)    
Analyses of variance Gender Children Gender × Children
multivariate F(5,555) p partial eta2 F(5,555) p partial eta2 F(5,555) p partial eta2
  12.46 <0.001 0.10 5.47 <0.001 0.05 4.03 0.001 0.04
univariate F(1,559) p partial eta2 F(1,559) p partial eta2 F(1,559) p partial eta2
Objective career success 43.91 <0.001 0.07 0.50 0.478 <0.01 2.48 0.116 <0.01
Subjective career success 25.40 <0.001 0.04 22.29 <0.001 0.04 18.61 <0.001 0.03
Satisfaction with own career 0.25 0.471 <0.01 5.31 0.022 0.01 1.60 0.207 <0.01
Mentoring experience 18.00 <0.001 0.03 7.80 0.005 0.01 1.59 0.207 <0.01
Satisfaction with career support 3.42 0.065 0.01 4.98 0.026 0.01 1.46 0.228 <0.01
  1. Results of multivariate and univariate analyses (N = 579)