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Table 3 Means (SD) of work-life balance in female and male physicians.

From: The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

  Female physicians Male physicians    
WORK-LIFE BALANCE Without children (n = 191) Mean (SD) With children (n = 101) Mean (SD) Total (n = 292) Mean (SD) Without children (n = 177) Mean (SD) With children (n = 110) Mean (SD) Total (n = 287) Mean (SD)    
Career orientation 2.47 (1.19) 1.65 (0.94) 2.18 (1.17) 3.19 (1.26) 3.06 (1.37) 3.14 (1.30)    
Balance of work and personal life 4.68 (0.55) 4.70 (0.67) 4.69 (0.60) 4.51 (0.79) 4.62 (0.62) 4.55 (0.73)    
Part-time orientation 4.35 (1.01) 4.83 (0.51) 4.52 (0.90) 3.46 (1.39) 3.73 (1.34) 3.56 (1.38)    
Three-phase orientation 3.16 (1.31) 3.97 (1.19) 3.44 (1.33) 2.36 (1.08) 2.56 (1.14) 2.44 (1.10)    
Analyses of variance Gender Children Gender × Children
multivariate F(4,568) p partial eta2 F(4,568) p partial eta2 F(4,568) p partial eta2
  43.06 <0.001 0.23 8.12 <0.001 0.05 4.41 0.002 0.03
univariate F(1,570) p partial eta2 F(1,570) p partial eta2 F(1,570) p partial eta2
Career orientation 103.32 <0.001 0.15 19.00 <0.001 0.03 10.91 0.001 0.02
Balance of work and personal life 4.79 0.029 <0.01 1.25 0.265 <0.01 0.66 0.416 <0.01
Part-time orientation 100.13 <0.001 0.15 14.12 <0.001 0.02 1.02 0.312 <0.01
Three-phase orientation 114.30 <0.001 0.17 23.61 <0.001 0.04 8.91 0.003 0.02
  1. Results of multivariate and univariate analyses (N = 579)