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Table 2 Adherence and clinical outcome measures at visit nearest to 180 days after initiation or at second CD4 test in subgroup with test in months 4 to 9.

From: Measuring adherence to antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: The clinical validity of key indicators

  Total (n = 488) With CD4 test (n = 409)
Average number of days since treatment initiation (min, max) 178 (124,337) 188 (98,270)
Dispensing-based adherence   
% of days covered since ART start   
   < 80% 2.9% 2.4%
   80% to <85% 2.7 2.0
   85% to <90% 2.9 3.9
   90% to <95% 8.0 8.1
   95% to <100% 20.1 19.6
   100% 63.5 64.1
% with gap in treatment >30 days 2.7% 3.4%
Self-report adherence   
Average (s.d.) number of self-reports recorded in medical record during follow-up 5.7 (1.8) 5.4 (2.0)
Average (s.d.) of all self-reports * 1.17 (0.39) 1.16 (0.33)
% all self-reports perfect * 72.6% 74.4%
% any self-report poor * 3.0% 2.9%
Appointment keeping   
Average number (s.d.) of visits 6.4 (1.1) 6.0 (1.6)
% visits on/before scheduled day   
   < 80% 19.9% 18.1%
   80% to <90% 22.1 20.5
   90% to 100% 58.1 61.4
% visits ≤ 3 days after scheduled   
   < 80% 5.9% 5.7%
   80% to <90% 13.1 11.1
   90% to 100% 81.0 83.2
Dispensing-based appointment keeping   
% of visits before finishing ARVs dispensed during previous visit   
   < 80% 44.9% 44.0%
   80% to <90% 27.5% 27.1
   90% to 100% 27.7% 28.9
Change in clinical outcome measures   
Average (s.d.) increase in CD4 count NA 138.1 (125.5)
Average (s.d.) weight gain (kg) 3.9 (5.1) 3.8 (4.8)
  1. * Self-reports were recorded in medical records as perfect (coded as 1), good (2), or poor (3); cases from Ethiopia (n = 120 total, n = 96 with CD4 test) were excluded from analysis because self-reports there were recorded as good/fair vs. poor.