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Table 3 Correlations among dispensing, self-report, and attendance-based adherence measures at time of clinic visit closest to 180 days after treatment initiation.

From: Measuring adherence to antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: The clinical validity of key indicators

Correlation Significance N (bold = p < 0.05) Coverage >80% Coverage >95% Coverage gap >30 days Average self-report adherence * Any self-report adhe-rence less than perfect* % of visits on or before scheduled day** % of visits within 3 days of scheduled day** % of visits before last dispensing finished
% of days covered 0.335 < .0001 488 0.744 < .0001 488 -0.321 < .0001 488 -0.186 .0004 358 -0.185 .0004 368 0.324 < .0001 458 0.357 < .0001 458 0.560 < .0001 488
Coverage >80% &   0.388 < .0001 488 -0.734 < .0001 488 -0.002 .9762 358 0.010 .8474 368 0.186 < .0001 458 0.305 < .0001 458 0.237 < .0001 488
Coverage >95% &    -0.374 < .0001 488 -0.178 .0007 358 -0.162 .0018 368 0.264 < .0001 458 0.376 < .0001 458 0.399 < .0001 488
Coverage gap >30 days &     -0.003 .9480 358 -0.010 0.8471 368 -0.120 .0104 458 -0.222 < .0001 458 -0.206 < .0001 488
Average self-report adherence      0.983 < .0001 358 -0.136 .0104 357 -0.160 .0024 357 0.072 0.1725 358
Any self-report adherence less than perfect &       -0.141 .0069 367 -0.164 .0016 367 -0.044 0.3961 368
% visits on/before scheduled day        0.630 < .0001 458 0.360 < .0001 458
% visits within 3 days of scheduled day         0.367 < .0001 458
  1. * Self-reports (n = 368) coded 1 = perfect, 2 = good, 3 = poor; excludes n = 120 cases from Ethiopia where self-reports were scored good/fair vs. poor
  2. ** n = 458 for appointment keeping variables due to missing scheduled visit dates
  3. & Kendall tau rather than Spearman rank-order correlations are reported when these variables are correlated with each other