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Table 4 Estimates from GEE models of indicators of adherence and appointment keeping as predictors of weight gain (in kilograms) in the first 9 months after ART initiation.

From: Measuring adherence to antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: The clinical validity of key indicators

  Parameter Estimate P-value Confidence Interval
Coverage (vs. 100% coverage) *    
   <80% of days covered -2.24 0.0012 -3.59, -0.89
   80% to <90% of days covered -0.51 0.3517 -1.59, 0.57
   90% to <100% of days covered -0.52 0.1504 -1.23, 0.19
Gap >30 days (vs. no gap in coverage) -3.26 0.0010 -5.20, -1.31
Average self-report (vs. all self-reports perfect) ** &    
   Better than good but less than perfect -1.06 0.0368 -2.05, -0.06
   Good or worse -1.23 0.0352 -2.38, -0.09
Any self-report less than perfect (vs. all perfect) & -1.14 0.0062 -1.96, -0.32
<80% of visits on day scheduled -0.72 0.0413 -1.41, -0.03
<80% of visits within 3 days of schedule -1.38 0.0127 -2.47, -0.29
<80% of visits before medicines finished -0.71 0.0140 -1.28, -0.14
  1. Key: All models use variables measured on the day of each follow-up visit and include all visits up to 270 days following ART initiation. For all models except those involving self-reported adherence, n = 479 cases and n = 3384 follow-up clinic visits; for self-report adherence models, n = 354 cases and n = 2404 follow-up clinic visits. Models include: gender, age category (30 or younger, 31-40, >40 years), whether married, capital-urban-rural location, baseline CD4 level, baseline weight, WHO stage at ART initiation (stage 1 or 2 vs. stage 3 or 4), time since ART initiation (in nine 30-day categories up to 270 days), evidence of TB at ART initiation, any evidence in medical record of side effect or opportunistic infection since treatment initiation, number of different ART regimens since initiation, ever treated with a protease inhibitor.
  2. * GEE type 3 score statistic for inclusion of 3 coverage terms in model, p = 0.0358
  3. ** GEE type 3 score statistic for inclusion of 2 self-report terms in model, p = 0.0331
  4. & Models exclude cases from Ethiopia which assessed self-reported adherence differently