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Table 4 Multilevel weighted regression estimates for use of preventive and curative care.

From: Assessing the context of health care utilization in Ecuador: A spatial and multilevel analysis

  Use of preventive carea Curative Care Visits
   First health problema Second health problema, b
Parameters
Constant -2.161 -1.457 -4.470
Provider measures    
   Public practice physicians 0.044 (0.035)   
   Private practice physicians   0.034 (0.007)*** 0.042 (0.013)***
   Public practice health personnel 0.009 (0.006) -0.015 (0.002)*** -0.018 (0.005)***
   Private practice health personnel -0.010 (0.009)   
Predisposing factors    
   Age -0.015 (0.002)*** 0.003 (0.002) 0.017 (0.003)***
   Female 0.314 (0.042)** 0.114 (0.030)*** 0.273 (0.046)***
   Indigenous -0.238 (0.196) -0.385 (0.080)***  
   Other ethnicity 0.140 (0.074)* -0.266 (0.077)***  
   Living w/partner 0.024 (0.070) -0.212 (0.074)*** -0.074 (0.113)
   Separated/divorced -0.182 (0.135) -0.055 (0.057) -0.004 (0.122)
   Widow 0.223 (0.088)** 0.076 (0.062) 0.378 (0.146)**
   Single -0.217 (0.061)*** -0.281 (0.055)*** -0.347 (0.069)***
Enabling factors    
   Rural -0.079 (0.164) -0.280 (0.086)*** -0.443 (0.127)***
   Assets quintile 1 -0.918 (0.115)*** -0.059 (0.106)  
   Assets quintile 2 -0.443 (0.100)*** 0.114 (0.126)  
   Assets quintile 3 -0.235 (0.068)*** 0.147 (0.094)  
   Assets quintile 4 -0.249 (0.053)*** 0.143 (0.065)**  
   Consumption quintile 1 -0.710 (0.100)*** -0.497 (0.056)***  
   Consumption quintile 2 -0.585 (0.088)*** -0.295 (0.046)***  
   Consumption quintile 3 -0.434 (0.072)*** -0.221 (0.052)***  
   Consumption quintile 4 -0.182 (0.078)** -0.100 (0.049)**  
   No education 0.697 (0.081)*** 1.211 (0.073)*** 1.036 (0.201)***
   Elementary school -0.021 (0.074) 0.473 (0.054)*** 0.460 (0.152)***
   High school 0.033 (0.067) 0.184 (0.033)*** 0.136 (0.157)
   Doesn't know/answer 0.087 (0.572) -0.218 (0.458) 0.741 (0.829)
   Uninsured -0.425 (0.059)*** -0.279 (0.033)*** -0.346 (0.072)***
Need    
   One health problem -0.038 (0.035) N/A N/A
   Two health problems 0.113 (0.084) N/A N/A
Interaction terms    
   Public practice physicians * Rural -0.035 (0.025)   
   Private practice physicians * Rural   -0.013 (0.007)* -0.017 (0.013)
   Public practice health personnel * Rural 0.018 (0.005)*** 0.008 (0.003)*** 0.006 (0.006)
   Private practice health personnel * Rural -0.010 (0.009)   
Random parameters    
   Level 4: province/region 0.031 (0.016)* 0.016 (0.007)** 0.117 (0.086)
   Level 3: census segment 0.081 (0.025)*** 0.071 (0.012)*** 0.161 (0.056)***
   Level 2: household 2.351 (0.452)*** 0.661 (0.062)*** 1.941 (1.281)
  1. * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. N/A = Not applicable.
  2. aA four-level binomial logit model (IGLS, MQL1) was run for each outcome. The final conditional model was fitted with health care need, predisposing and enabling factors as fixed effects, and random variance at the household, census segment and province/region levels. Interaction terms were included between the provider measures and urban/rural. Figures in parentheses represent the standard errors.
  3. bSince no significant variation was found at the household level in the non-conditional model, no predictors at this level were included in subsequent models.