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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of the study population (n:862)

From: Predictors of the highest long-term care expenditures in Japan

  Long-term Care Expenditures
Covariates higher (n: 216) non-higher (n: 646) Total
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age*    
< = 74 y-old (ref) 20 (9.3%) 103 (15.9%) 123 (14.3%)
75 -84 y-old 84 (38.9%) 247 (38.2%) 331 (38.4%)
85-94 y-old 81 (37.5%) 263 (40.7%) 344 (39.9%)
> = 95 y-old 31 (14.4%) 33 (5.1%) 64 (7.4%)
Gender    
male (ref) 50 (23.1%) 184 (28.5%) 234 (27.1%)
female 166 (76.9%) 462 (71.5%) 628 (72.9%)
Income level    
low (ref) 29 (13.4%) 90 (13.9%) 119 (13.8%)
middle 163 (75.5%) 476 (73.7%) 639 (74.1%)
high 24 (11.1%) 80 (12.4%) 104 (12.1%)
U Rate Benefits(URB)*    
equal or decrease(ref) 166 (76.9%) 587 (90.9%) 753 (87.4%)
increase 50 (23.1%) 59 (9.1%) 109 (12.6%)
Change in functional status*    
unchanged(ref) 108 (50.0%) 441 (68.3%) 549 (63.7%)
decline 108 (50.0%) 205 (31.7%) 313 (36.3%)
Care needs level *    
low care need level (ref) 3 (1.4%) 285 (44.1%) 288 (33.4%)
middle care need level 48 (22.2%) 276 (42.7%) 324 (37.6%)
high care need level 165 (76.4%) 85 (13.2%) 250 (29.0%)
Type of services*    
others(ref) 41 (19.0%) 543 (84.1%) 584 (67.7%)
facilities 175 (81.0%) 103 (15.9%) 278 (32.3%)
  1. Test for statistical differences between high expenditures and non-high expenditures groups were conducted using X2 test. * p < 0.0001