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Table 1 Comparisons of the groups with 1, 2 or ≥3 hospital stays in the first year after the decision to initiate continuing care

From: Hospital and outpatient clinic utilization among older people in the 3-5 years following the initiation of continuing care: a longitudinal cohort study

  0 hospital stay n= 612 1 hospital stay n= 217 2 hospital stays n= 110 ≥3 hospital stays n= 140 p-value Post-hoc analysese
Age           
   Mean (SD) 81.0 (7.1) 79.9 (7.3) 80.0 (6.8) 78.9 (6.9) 0.010a -
Sex           
   Female % 69.8 59.9 58.2 54.3 < 0.001b C b
Living conditions %          < 0.001b C b
   Home 59.6 67.5 71.6 76.6   
   Special accommodation 40.4 32.5 28.4 23.4   
Dependent in IADL (%)           
   Cleaningf 88.2 89.3 88.3 87.0 0.937b  
   Shoppingf 85.9 88.2 84.6 86.8 0.804b  
   Transportationh 85.8 85.4 86.7 85.7 0.994b  
   Cookingf 76.3 77.9 74.5 74.6 0.887b  
   IADL sum Mean (SD) 3.4 (1.1) 3.4 (1.1) 3.4 (1.1) 3.5 (0.9) 0.922a  
Dependent in PADL (%)           
   Bathingf 55.1 56.7 59.6 44.5 0.084b  
   Dressingf 32.5 32.2 24.3 24.4 0.139b  
   Toiletingf 34.3 34.6 28.8 24.2 0.110b  
   Transferf 27.1 32.1 23.6 20.1 0.139b  
   Continencei 44.5 44.7 47.2 40.4 0.801b  
   Feedingf 3.9 3.4 2.9 0.8 0.327b  
   PADL sum Mean (SD) 1.6 (1.7) 1.6 (1.7) 1.6 (1.6) 1.3 (1.6) 0.585a  
Cognitive ability f          0.003c C, Ed
   No impairment 53.8 59.0 61.8 75.2   
   Severity class I 13.1 14.1 9.8 5.4   
   Severity class II 9.7 8.3 10.8 5.4   
   Severity class III 11.8 8.8 13.7 10.9   
   Severity class IV 7.6 5.9 3.9 3.1   
   Severity class V 1.6 2.0 .0 .0   
   Severity class VI 2.4 2.0 .0 .0   
Dizziness (%) i          0.930c  
   Periodic dizziness 33.2 33.7 25.8 29.3   
   Periodic severe dizziness 4.9 4.6 7.9 6.0   
   Constant severe dizziness 0.8 2.3 3.4 4.3   
Anxiety (%) g          0.101c  
   Periodic anxiety 31.6 27.8 27.5 27.9   
   Periodic severe anxiety 9.6 5.9 4.9 6.6   
   Constant severe anxiety 1.2 2.0 1.0 1.6   
Depressed mood (%) g          0.427c  
   Periodic depressed 35.6 30.8 29.0 32.5   
   Periodic severe depression 5.6 5.0 6.0 4.1   
   Constant severe depression 1.1 1.5 .0 1.6   
Pain (%) h          0.003c Cd
   Slight pain 35.4 42.5 40.4 43.5   
   Periodic severe pain 12.5 15.5 17.0 18.3   
   Constant severe pain 2.6 3.3 3.2 4.3   
Ulcer (%)           
   Slow- healing woundsh 4.2 7.5 4.3 12.8 0.003b Cb
   Pressure ulcer h 3.3 5.2 3.2 2.5 0.567b  
Number of hospital stays Mean (SD)         
   Second year 0.6 (1.1) 0.8 (1.2) 0.9 (1.6) 1.9 (2.4) < 0.001a C, E, F
   Third year 0.5 (1.1) 0.7 (1.6) 0.6 (1.1) 1.1 (2.4) 0.005a C
Number of contacts with physicians in outpatient care Mean (SD)         
   First year 8.1 (8.5) 11.5 (8.3) 12.2 (8.4) 16.5 (11.5) < 0.001a A, B, C, E, F
   Second year 8.3 (8.5) 10.5 (9.4) 10.7 (7.4) 12.7 (11.3) < 0.001a A, C
   Third year 7.0 (8.3) 9.6 (13.0) 7.9 (6.3) 12.9 (13.5) < 0.001a C, F
Deceased %           
   First year 15.4 30.4 38.2 31.4 < 0.001b A, B, Cb
   Second year 15.6 21.9 17.6 32.3 0.001b Cb
   Third year 16.0 17.8 14.3 13.8 0.889b  
   Informal care in IADL (%) g 54.9 61.9 72.8 77.6 < 0.001b B, Cb
   Informal care in PADL (%) g 23.4 30.4 37.9 40.0 < 0.001b Bb
  1. a) ANOVA b) Chi square test c) Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test d) Mann-Whitney U-test between two groups
  2. Missing/unknown: f4-7% g7.1-10% h11-15% i16-18.2%
  3. Reduced p-value < 0.012 was used in Post Hoc analyses according to the Bonferroni method
  4. e)Significant differences between: (A) 0 hospital stay versus 1 hospital stay, (B) 0 hospital stay versus 2 hospital stays, (C) 0 hospital stay versus 3 hospital stays, (D) 1 hospital stay versus 2 hospital stays, (E) 1 hospital stay versus 3 hospital stays,(F) 2 hospital stays versus ≥3 hospital stays