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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 108 older participants and their 43 caregivers.

From: An easy intervention to improve short-term adherence to medications in community-dwelling older outpatients. A pilot non-randomised controlled trial

Variables Intervention (n= 54) Control (n= 54) Pvalue
  Mean (SD) Perc. (n) Mean (SD) Perc. (n)  
Older participants      
Age, years 79.8 (6.4)   80.6 (7.1)   0.543
Sex: female   63 (34)   69 (37) 0.543
Living alone   50 (27)   44 (24) 0.780
Education, years 8.8 (5)   8.5 (4.4)   0.698
BADL scorea 4.6 (1.6)   4.4 (1.5)   0.623
IADL scoreb 4.6 (2.9)   4.3 (2.7)   0.495
Dependence in taking medications   35 (19)   44 (24) 0.326
CIRS m scorec 4.2 (1.8)   4.1 (1.6)   0.610
CIRS s scored 1.9 (0.5)   1.9 (0.3)   0.543
MMSE scoree 24.1 (6.3)   23.7 (6.3)   0.726
5-item GDS scoref 2.4 (1.3)   2.0 (1.3)   0.162
Cornell scale scoreg 13.4 (5.2)   15.0 (5.1)   0.344
MNA SF scoreh 10.4 (2.1)   9.7 (2.4)   0.132
Drugs daily, n 5.5 (2.6)   5.4 (2.6)   0.854
Drug administrations daily, n 6.7 (3.6)   6.4 (3.1)   0.668
Any adherence errori   70 (38)   67 (36) 0.679
Any intentional adherence error   41 (22)   41 (22) 1.000
Therapy suspended   33 (18)   26 (14) 0.399
Therapy never taken   11 (6)   19 (10) 0.417
Therapy never stopped   2 (1)   13 (7) 0.060
Any unintentional adherence error   52 (28)   37 (20) 0.121
Caregivers (n = 19) (n = 24)  
Age, years 62.8 (16)   58.1 (18.9)   0.380
Education, years 7.5 (3.3)   7.6 (3.8)   0.955
CBI scorel 35.2 (22.1)   37.1 (20.9)   0.766
  1. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher's exact test.
  2. a BADL = Basic Activities of Daily Living; normal score 6/6. Lower scores indicate worse functional status.
  3. b IADL = Instrumental Acitivities of Daily Living; normal score 8/8. Lower scores indicate worse functional status.
  4. c CIRS m = Cumulative Illness Rating Scale morbidity. Score range 0-13; lower scores indicate lower morbidity.
  5. d CIRS s = Cumulative Illness Rating Scale severity. Score range 1-5; lower scores indicate less severe multiple pathology.
  6. e MMSE = Mini Mental State Examination. Score range 0-30. Scores are corrected for age and education. Lower scores indicate worse cognitive function.
  7. f GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale. Score range 0-5. Higher scores indicate worse emotional status. This variable was analysed only in the 68 participants (34 per group) without cognitive impairment.
  8. g Score range 0-38, higher scores indicate worse emotional status. This variable was analysed only in the 40 participants (20 per group) suffering from cognitive impairment (i.e. MMSE score < 24 out of 30 after correction for age and education).
  9. h MNA SF = Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form. Score range 0-14. Lower scores indicate higher risk of malnutrition.
  10. i The sum of any intentional and any unintentional errors is over 100% because we found both kinds of errors in 18 cases: 12 cases belonging to the intervention group and 6 cases belonging to the control group.
  11. l CBI = Caregiver Burden Inventory. Score range 0-96, higher scores indicate greater distress of the caregiver.