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Table 1 Characteristics of admissions included in the study

From: Does adding risk-trends to survival models improve in-hospital mortality predictions? A cohort study

Characteristic Derivation Validation
Patients/Hospitalizations, n* 77294/106522 44300/53265
Deaths in-hospital, n (%) 5407 (5.1) 2640 (5.0)
Length of admission in days, median (IQR*) 5 (2-9) 5 (2-9)
Male, n (%) 55295 (51.9) 27807 (52.2)
Age at admission, median (IQR) 61 (48-75) 61 (48-74)
Admission type, n (%)   
   Emergent non-surgical 49862 (46.8) 24982 (46.9)
   Emergent surgical 22534 (21.2) 11187 (21.0)
   Elective non-surgical 14184 (13.3) 6970 (13.1)
   Elective surgical 19942 (18.7) 10126 (19.0)
Elixhauser score, median (IQR) 0 (0-6) 0 (0-6)
LAPS* at admission, median (IQR) 5 (0-38) 4 (0-38)
Hazard of death at admission, median (IQR) 0.0008 (0.0002- 0.0040) 0.0008 (0.0002- 0.0039)
At least 1 admission to the intensive care unit, n (%) 5433 (5.1) 2654 (5.0)
Change from active care to alternative level of care, n (%) 4830 (4.5) 2363 (4.4)
At least 1 PIMR* procedure, n (%) 29791 (28.0) 14923 (28.0)
PIMR score on day of procedure, median (IQR) 1 (-4 - 2) 1 (-4 - 2)
  1. *n = number; IQR = interquartile range; LAPS = Laboratory-based Acute Physiology Score; PIMR = Procedure Independent Mortality Risk
  2. as predicted by the existing time-dependent survival model
  3. among admissions where at least 1 PIMR procedure was performed. For admissions where PIMR procedures were performed on more than one day (3% of all admissions), we used the PIMR score on the first procedure day to calculate the median (IQR) score. If more than one PIMR procedure was performed on the procedure day, the scores of the individual procedures were summed. A negative PIMR score indicates a procedure associated with a decreased risk of hospital death.