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Table 5 Adjusteda Multilevel Logistic Regression -- Comparison of Access Measures by Rural-Urban Status Odds Ratio (95% CI) Higher numbers indicate a higher likelihood of outcome

From: An evaluation of access to health care services along the rural-urban continuum in Canada

Statistical Area Classification Influenza Vaccine Self-Reported Unmet Need Family Physician Consultation Specialist Physician Consultation Regular Medical Doctor
Urban - CMAb 0.97 (0.88, 1.06) 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) 1.11 (1.00, 1.22) 1.24 (1.15, 1.35)d 0.77 (0.64, 0.92)d
Urban - CAe 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Rural - Strong MIZ 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.85 (0.75, 0.97)c 0.99 (0.89, 1.11) 1.04 (0.95, 1.15) 0.96 (0.81, 1.13)
Rural - Moderate MIZ 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.83 (0.75, 0.94)d 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 0.91 (0.84, 1.00) 0.89 (0.76, 1.04)
Rural - Weak or No MIZ 0.89 (0.81, 0.98)c 0.85 (0.75, 0.96)d 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 0.62 (0.53, 0.74)d
  1. a Adjusted for chronic conditions, self-rated health status, age, marital status, educational attainment, ethnic origin, having regular medical doctor, income adequacy, having pharmaceuticals insurance, and occupation class.
  2. b CMA = Census Metropolitan Area; CA = Census Amalgamation; MIZ = Metropolitan Influence Zone
  3. c Significant at p < 0.05
  4. d Significant at p < 0.001
  5. e Reference Category