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Table 1 Predictors of surfactant use in cohort 1 (n = 3,633)*

From: Assessment of surfactant use in preterm infants as a marker of neonatal intensive care unit quality

  Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
PATIENT-LEVEL PREDICTORS*    
Gestational age    
30 weeks (n = 621) Reference   
31 weeks (n = 620) 0.73 0.57-0.95 0.019
32 weeks (n = 747) 0.68 0.53-0.87 0.002
33 weeks (n = 715) 0.58 0.45-0.75 <0.001
34 weeks (n = 930) 0.69 0.55-0.88 0.003
Race†    
Non-white (n = 840) Reference   
White (n = 2,571) 1.22 1.02-1.47 0.03
Gender    
Female (n = 1,535) Reference   
Male (n = 2,098) 1.34 1.15-1.57 <0.001
Age at admission    
Day of life 0 (n = 3,107) Reference   
Day of life 1 (n = 526) 1.11 0.89-1.38 0.34
Mode of respiratory support (first 48 hrs)    
NCPAP (n = 672) Reference   
Mechanical ventilation (n = 2,961) 54.99 35.86-84.35 <0.001
HOSPITAL-LEVEL PREDICTORS††    
Research involvement    
Top 10 hospital based on NIH total awards to children's hospitals 1.48 0.98-2.25 0.065
Surgical volume    
≥ 29% (median) of admissions to the NICU classified as surgical 1.58 0.79-3.16 0.193
Payer mix    
≥ 45% (median) of admissions to the hospital paid by Medicaid 0.80 0.40-1.61 0.532
Patient volume    
≥ 45 (median) Annual ELBW Admissions 1.80 1.02-3.19 0.042
  1. NCPAP = nasal continuous positive airway pressure, NIH = National Institutes of Health; NICU = neonatal intensive care unit; ELBW = extremely low birth weight
  2. *Model includes patient-level variables listed in the table plus hospital fixed effects
  3. †Model includes a term for missing race (n = 222)
  4. ††Model includes patient-level variables listed in the table plus hospital characteristics added individually