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Table 4 Classification and definition of pharmaceutical care issues

From: Preventing hospital admissions by reviewing medication (PHARM) in primary care: design of the cluster randomised, controlled, multi-centre PHARM-study

Pharmaceutical care issue Definition
Monitoring An intermittent (regular or irregular) series of observations in time, carried out to determine the effectiveness, safety and adherence of the drug therapy.
Drug-drug interaction A combination of two or more drugs, administered by one patient that can result in a modification of the effect of at least one drug. The effect may be an undesired effect or a lack of effect of the drug.
Contra-indicated drug A drug that is undesired because of the medical condition of the patient, which can lead to an adverse drug event or a lack of effect of the drug or a worsening of the medical condition of the patient.
Lifestyle The lifestyle of the patient that could interfere with effective and safe drug therapy or that could result in non-adherence.
Double medication Therapeutic duplication is defined as the use of two or more drugs in the same ATC classification and with similar pharmacodynamic properties, which can lead to adverse drug events.