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Table 1 Patient and treatment characteristics associated with non-cure in Yunnan province, China (N = 841)

From: Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

Characteristic N(%) non-cure (%) RR 95% CI p-value
Sex      0.27
Male 575 (68.4) 37 (6.4) 1   
Female 266 (31.6) 12 (4.5) 0.69 0.35 - 1.3  
Age (years)      0.66
<30 285 (33.9) 18 (6.3) 1   
≥30 556 (66.1) 31 (5.6) 0.88 0.48 - 1.6  
Education level**      0.01
No formal education or primary school only 520 (62.6) 38 (7.3) 1   
Secondary school or higher 311 (37.4) 10 (3.2) 0.42 0.21 - 0.86  
Medical insurance      0.02
No 153 (18.2) 15 (9.8) 1   
Yes 688 (81.8) 34 (4.9) 0.48 0.32 - 0.90  
Income*,**      0.11
Low 314 (37.3) 21 (6.7) 1   
Middle 239 (28.4) 18 (7.5) 1.1 0.59 - 2.2  
High 288 (34.3) 10 (3.5) 0.50 0.23 - 1.12  
Co-morbidity      0.06
No 755 (89.8) 40 (5.3) 1   
Yes 86 (10.2) 9 (11.6) 2.1 0.98 - 4.5  
Patient delay (days)      0.02
<30 243 (28.9) 7 (2.9) 1   
≥30 598 (71.1) 42 (7.5) 2.5 1.1 - 5.8  
Directly observed treatment      0.01
Yes, by health care staff 108 (12.8) 4 (3.7) 1   
Yes, shared by health care staff and family member 85 (10.1) 9 (10.6) 3.1 0.9 - 10.4  
Yes, by family member 415 (49.3) 15 (1.8) 0.98 0.32 - 3.0  
No 233 (27.7) 21 (9.0) 2.6 0.86 - 7.7  
Sputum smear status before treatment      0.03
≤2+ 503 (59.8) 22 (4.4) 1   
>2+ 338 (40.2) 27 (8.0) 1.9 1.1 - 3.4  
Sputum smear result after 2 months of treatment      0.01
Negative 726 (86.3) 21 (2.9) 1   
Positive 98 (11.7) 11 (11.1) 4.2 2.0 - 9.1  
Without test 17 (2.0) 17 (100) 34.8 24.7 - 48.6#  
Adverse events**      0.06
No 539 (65.8) 22 (4.1) 1   
Yes, did not require hospitalization 262 (32.0) 10 (3.8) 0.93 0.44 - 2.0  
Yes, required hospitalization 18 (2.2) 3 (16.7) 4.7 1.3 - 17.4  
Interruption of treatment      0.17
No 686 (81.6) 39 (5.7) 1   
Yes, during intensive phase 28 (3.3) 3 (10.7) 2.0 0.58 - 6.9  
Yes, during continued phase 96 (11.4) 3 (3.1) 0.54 0.16 - 1.8  
Yes, during intensive and continuation phase 31 (3.7) 4 (12.9) 2.5 0.82 - 7.4  
Maximum number of missed doses in a row**      0.09
0 682 (81.6) 35 (5.1) 1   
1-7 102(12.2) 3 (2.9) 0.56 0.17 - 1.9  
>7 52 (6.2) 6 (11.5) 2.4 0.97 - 6.0  
Taking drugs according to guideline      < 0.001
Yes 638 (75.9) 19 (3.0) 1   
No 203 (24.1) 30 (14.8) 5.7 3.1 - 10.3  
Patient knows that during treatment he/she should go to CDC for medical check-ups**      < 0.001
Yes 752 (91.0) 22 (2.9) 1   
No 74 (9.0) 14 (18.9) 7.7 3.8 - 15.9  
Patient knows the duration of TB treatment      0.001
Yes 518 (61.6) 19 (3.7) 1   
No 323 (38.4) 30 (9.3) 2.7 1.5 - 4.9  
Patient agrees with the need for treatment observation**      0.06
Yes 209 (25.3) 4 (1.9) 1   
No 616 (74.7) 31 (5.0) 2.7 0.95 - 7.8  
Family attitude**      0.07
More supportive than usual 339 (40.3) 9 (2.7) 1   
No change or less supportive than usual 502 (59.7) 40 (8.0) 2.1 0.95 - 4.5  
  1. RR = Relative Risk, 95%CI = 95% confidence interval
  2. * based on tertiles
  3. # As there is one cell with a zero, we cannot estimate RR directly. We added 0.5 to each cell to estimate the RR.
  4. ** numbers do not add up to 841 due to missing values