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Table 3 GEE models fitting temporal trends of cost indices and comparison of subgroup trends

From: Empirical evidence of the continuing improvement in cost efficiency of an endoscopic surveillance programme for gastric cancer in Singapore from 2004 to 2010

  Overall cost Clinical cost GCEP cost Personal cost
Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P
A: Temporal trends
Whole Sample*   −106 (−117, -95) < 0.001 −40 (−46, -34) < 0.001 −48 (−63, -34) < 0.001 −9 (−12, -4) < 0.001
  Age (year) * 50-59 −109 (−124, -94) < 0.001 −41 (−49, -33) < 0.001 −40 (−60, -19) < 0.001 −7 (−12, -1) 0.01
> = 60 −102 (−117, -87) < 0.001 −37 (−47, -28) < 0.001 −59 (−78, -39) < 0.001 −10 (−15, -5) < 0.001
  Gender* Male −101 (−115, -87) < 0.001 −37 (−45, -29) < 0.001 −44 (−62, -26) < 0.001 −7 (−12, -1) 0.009
Female −112 (−131, -93) < 0.001 −43 (−53, -34) < 0.001 −54 (−77, -32) < 0.001 −10 (−15, -4) 0.001
  Risk Profile* High −112 (−123, -100) < 0.001 −43 (−49, -36) < 0.001 −73 (−87, -60) < 0.001 −13 (−17, -10) < 0.001
Moderate −46 (−61, -32) < 0.001 −18 (−28, -7) 0.001 26 (3, 49) 0.027 5 (−3, 14) 0.212
B: Comparisons between subgroups
  > = 60 year vs. 50-59   21 (−23, 65) 0.36 17 (−5, 40) 0.127 34 (−17, 84) 0.188 4 (−11, 18) 0.634
  Male vs. Female   10 (−35, 54) 0.675 1 (−21, 22) 0.965 15 (−34, 65) 0.536 7 (−8, 21) 0.382
  High vs. Moderate   192 (155, 228) < 0.001 87 (68, 104) < 0.001 226 (190, 263) < 0.001 39 (26, 52) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: C.I., confidence interval.
  2. * Means are average decrement/increment across costing period.
  3. Means are differences between two subgroups across costing period.