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Table 4 Coding framework: key themes and concepts from participant interviews

From: How the stigma of low literacy can impair patient-professional spoken interactions and affect health: insights from a qualitative investigation

Theme Sub-themes
1. Personal details 1.1 Age group
1.2 Gender
1.3 Household arrangements
1.4 Employment status
1.5 Length of time at centre
1.6 Reported causal factors associated with literacy
1.7 Literacy learning needs
1.8 Reasons for seeking help with literacy
1.9 Health status
2. Literacy-related life history 2.1 Education
2.2 Employment
3. Communication and relationships with healthcare staff 3.1 Written communication
3.2 Spoken communication
3.3 Relationships with GPs
3.4 Relationships with other healthcare staff
3.5 Other issues
4. Disclosure of literacy difficulties 4.1 Disclosure to healthcare staff
4.2 Disclosure to others
4.3 Selective disclosure
4.4 Strategies to avoid disclosure
4.5 Other issues
5. Coping strategies to access services and carry out self-care activities 5.1 Asking for help
5.2 The role of others
5.3 Coping devices
5.4 Other
6. Health literacy 6.1 Accessing and navigating health services
6.2 Obtaining and using health information
6.3 Knowledge and understanding of health conditions and treatment
6.4 Other issues
7. Mental wellbeing 7.1 General mental wellbeing
7.2 Problem attribution
7.3 Stigma
7.4 Stress
7.5 Confidence
7.6 Social experiences
7.7 Other
8. Suggested changes to health service 8.1 Written communication
8.2 Spoken communication
8.3 Hospital environment
8.4 Awareness and acknowledgement of low literacy
8.5 Facilitating disclosure of low literacy
8.6 Avoiding disclosure of low literacy
8.7 Other issues