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Table 3 GEE Results for Instrumental Research Use (IRU) and Conceptual Research Use (CRU) (Independent Working Correlation Structure)

From: The influence of organizational context on the use of research by nurses in Canadian pediatric hospitals

Level Variables IRU CRU
Estimate (SE) p-value Estimate (SE) p-value
Individual level covariates (N = 748) Attitude towards research 0.168 (0.107) 0.118 0.035 (0.095) 0.712
Belief suspension (Implement) 0.159 (0.054) 0.004 0.142 (0.062) 0.023
Belief suspension (Willingness) -0.020 (0.050) 0.687 -0.003 (0.074) 0.968
SF-8TM (Physical health status) 0.005 (0.006) 0.414 -0.002 (0.007) 0.812
SF-8TM (Mental health status) -0.001 (0.005) 0.839 -0.001 (0.005) 0.921
MBI Emotional Exhaustion 0.063 (0.057) 0.266 0.072 (0.054) 0.184
MBI Cynicism -0.118 (0.050) 0.017 -0.075 (0.047) 0.111
MBI Efficacy 0.065 (0.036) 0.071 0.058 (0.043) 0.174
Adequate orientation 0.117 (0.066) 0.074 0.047 (0.063) 0.455
Job satisfaction 0.069 (0.067) 0.305 0.152 (0.078) 0.050
Age1 -0.023 (0.025) 0.347 0.018 (0.023) 0.442
Sex2 -0.152 (0.193) 0.431 -0.232 (0.225) 0.302
Highest education - Diploma/Certificate3 -0.032 (0.219) 0.882 0.074 (0.235) 0.752
       Bachelor degree 0.376 (0.223) 0.091 0.287 (0.233) 0.219
Employment status - Full time4 0.290 (0.275) 0.291 0.137 (0.245) 0.576
       Part time 0.294 (0.267) 0.272 0.060 (0.265) 0.820
Problem solving 0.097 (0.121) 0.424 0.290 (0.140) 0.039
Specialized course (Yes/No)5 0.084 (0.095) 0.381 0.084 (0.072) 0.245
Research use in past 0.221 (0.095) 0.020 0.248 (0.089) 0.006
Unit level covariates (N = 32) ACT Leadership 0.233 (0.144) 0.106 0.437 (0.108) <.0001
ACT Culture 0.834 (0.409) 0.042 -0.654 (0.329) 0.047
ACT Evaluation 0.151 (0.124) 0.223 0.353 (0.074) <.0001
ACT Formal Interactions -0.053 (0.133) 0.691 -0.342 (0.084) <.0001
ACT Informal Interactions 0.245 (0.137) 0.074 0.286 (0.085) 0.001
ACT Social Capital -0.076 (0.380) 0.841 -0.497 (0.306) 0.105
ACT Structural and Electronic Resources -0.280 (0.146) 0.056 0.005 (0.104) 0.964
ACT Organizational Slack-Staff -0.060 (0.118) 0.612 0.027 (0.070) 0.702
ACT Organizational Slack-Space -0.074 (0.128) 0.562 0.247 (0.103) 0.016
ACT Organizational Slack-Time 0.121 (0.302) 0.690 -0.113 (0.228) 0.620
Support for innovation -0.518 (0.273) 0.057 -0.244 (0.220) 0.268
Specialty - Critical care6 0.174 (0.172) 0.313 0.175 (0.146) 0.230
       Medical care -0.032 (0.113) 0.776 0.211 (0.093) 0.023
Average (mean) number of occupied beds 0.005 (0.005) 0.246 0.002 (0.003) 0.461
Percentage of baccalaureate nurses 0.629 (0.294) 0.032 0.036 (0.263) 0.890
Average patient stay -0.026 (0.013) 0.050 -0.002 (0.010) 0.828
QIC & working correlation ρ ^ = 0.00 ρ ^ = 0.00
QIC = 723.57 QIC = 704.93
  1. Bold statistically significant (p < .05).
  2. 1Used as continuous to examine the linear trend.
  3. 2Reference group = Female.
  4. 3Reference group = Master or higher.
  5. 4Reference group = Casual.
  6. 5Reference group = No.
  7. 6Reference group = Surgical care unit.