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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Occurrence and preventability of adverse drug events in surgical patients: a systematic review of literature

Reference Country No. of hospitals No. of admissions Inclusion period Quality score* Method of patient selection Wards Voluntary/incident reporting Chart review Direct observation Computerized monitoring Endpoints
Classen[17] USA 1 36,653 1989-1990 13 All patients admitted to the hospital SGC, MGC, OG Yes Yes No Yes Number and characteristics of ADEs
Bates[14] USA 1 420 1990 14 All patients admitted to the study wards SGC, MGC, OG, CICU Yes Yes Yes No Incidence and preventability of ADEs
Bates[15] USA 2 4,031 1993 14 All adult patients admitted to the study wards SGC, MGC, SICU, MICU Yes Yes Yes No Incidence and preventability of ADEs, and potential ADEs
Lazarus[18] USA 1 4,320 1996-1999 13 All trauma patients admitted to the hospital Trauma Yes Yes No Yes Rate and nature of ADEs
Berga Culleré[16] Spain 5 1,550 2007 15 All adult patients admitted to the study wards receiving pharmacological treatment > 48 hours SGC, MGC No Yes Yes No Incidence and preventability of ADEs
Morimoto[19] Japan 3 3,459 2004 14 All adult patients admitted to the study wards aged ≥ 15 years SGC, MGC, ICU Yes Yes Yes No Incidence and preventability of ADEs and medication errors
  1. SGC: surgical general care; MGC: medical general care; OG: obstetrics/gynaecology; ICU: intensive care unit; CICU: coronary ICU; SICU: surgical ICU; MICU: medical ICU. *MINORS was used for quality assessment, maximum score for non-comparative studies was 16 [9].