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Table 4 Effects of encounter and patient characteristics on E&M charge level

From: Following the money: copy-paste of lifestyle counseling documentation and provider billing

Variable Estimate 95% Confidence limits P- value Odds ratio
Physical1 −2.59 −2.66 −2.52 <.0001 0.0753
Income ($1,000) −0.00245 −0.00413 −0.000770 0.00440 0.998
Female2 −0.127 −0.183 −0.0714 <.0001 0.881
Caucasian3 0.653 0.589 0.718 <.0001 1.92
Government Insurance4 −0.335 −0.397 −0.273 <.0001 9.715
English is the primary language5 −0.189 −0.258 −0.120 <.0001 0.828
Age (Decade) 0.214 0.189 0.239 <.0001 1.24
Hemoglobin A1C (over 7%) −0.0170 −0.0277 −0.00619 0.00200 0.983
Hemoglobin A1C imputed6 0.275 0.240 0.310 <.0001 1.32
LDL cholesterol (over 100 mg/dL) 0.0000170 −0.000820 0.000851 0.967 1.00
LDL imputed7 0.0513 0.0237 0.0788 0.000300 1.05
SBP (over 130 mmHg) 0.000884 −0.000430 0.00220 0.187 1.00
DBP (over 85 mmHg) 0.00230 −0.00210 0.00669 0.306 1.00
BP imputed8 −1.06 −1.10 −1.01 <.0001 0.347
CCI −0.00524 −0.0124 0.00196 0.154 0.995
Total Active Medications −0.00282 −0.00670 0.00105 0.153 0.997
BMI (over 25)* 0.00352 −0.000850 0.00789 0.114 1.00
BMI Imputed9 −0.0369 −0.127 0.0529 0.420 0.964
Anti-hyperglycemic medication intensification§ 0.210 0.174 0.247 <.0001 1.23
Medications updated during the encounter 0.108 0.102 0.113 <.0001 1.11
Treatment with Insulin10 0.0562 0.0126 0.0998 0.0115 1.06
Note length (log) 0.793 0.773 0.814 <.0001 2.21
Acute complaints11 0.277 0.249 0.304 <.0001 1.32
Distinct counseling documentation‡12 0.272 0.242 0.302 <.0001 1.31
Copied counseling documentation‡12 0.336 0.276 0.395 <.0001 1.40
Documentation of time spent counseling13 1.37 1.11 1.63 <.0001 3.94
Interaction between documentation of time spent counseling & distinct counseling 0.330 0.0527 0.607 0.0196 1.39
Interaction between documentation of time spent counseling & copied counseling −0.954 −1.31 −0.592 <.0001 0.39
  1. *Recorded closest in time to encounter.
  2. †Most recent measurement taken within 6 months prior to the encounter.
  3. ‡Encounters with no counseling documentation served as the reference.
  4. 1Reference category: encounter was billed as a follow-up visit.
  5. 2Reference category: male.
  6. 3Reference category: non-Caucasian.
  7. 4Reference category: private health insurance.
  8. 5Reference category: primary language other than English.
  9. 6Reference category: data available for hemoglobin A1c.
  10. 7Reference category: data available for LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol.
  11. 8Reference category: data available for blood pressure (BP).
  12. 9Reference category: data available for body mass index (BMI).
  13. 10Reference category: patients not treated with insulin.
  14. 11Reference category: no acute complaints documented for the encounter.
  15. 12Reference category: no lifestyle counseling documented.
  16. 13Reference category: time spent counseling not documented.
  17. A1C= Glycated hemoglobin. LDL=Low-density lipoprotein. SBP= Systolic blood pressure. DBP= Diastolic blood pressure. BP= Blood pressure. CCI= Charlson comorbidity index. BMI=Body mass index.