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Table 1 Existing approaches for measuring process orientation

From: Hospital process orientation from an operations management perspective: development of a measurement tool and practical testing in three ophthalmic practices

Author Objective Perspective Distinguished variables or dimensions Applied to hospital setting
McCormack [41] Assess the degree at which an organization pays attention to its relevant (core) processes. Management & Organization theory Process View; Process Structure; Process Jobs; No
Process Measurement & Management;
Customer-focused Process Values & Beliefs.
Andersson et al. [36] Interpret work and information management in process-oriented healthcare organizations. Information systems theory Care activity; Yes
Co-ordination activity;
Supply activity.
Reijers [48] Determine an organizations’ PO prior to BPM system implementation. Information systems theory Organizational structure; Focus measurement; No
Ownership management; Customer requirements.
Hammer [49] Plan and execute process based transformation. Management & Organization theory Process enablers (5 elements); No
Enterprise capabilities (4 elements).
Vera & Kuntz [28] Assess the application of six organizational instruments that lead to a pronounced PO in hospitals. Management & Organization theory Process management (4 instruments); Yes
Decentralization (2 instruments).
Gemmel et al. [40] (based on McCormack [41]) Assess the degree at which a hospital pays attention to its relevant (core) processes. Management & Organization theory Process View; Process Jobs; Yes
Process Measurement & Management.
Kohlbacher & Gruenwald [35] Measure the key dimensions of PO on the basis of PO constructs. Multidimensional Design & documentation of processes; No
Management commitment towards PO;
Process owner role;
Process performance measurement;
Corporate culture in line with process approach;
Continuous process improvement methodologies;
Process-oriented organizational structure.