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Table 2 Distribution and CI in use of maternal and child health services by Chinese women in 2006 and 2008-2009

From: Equity in use of maternal health services in Western Rural China: a survey from Shaanxi province

Health care service Year Income level,% CI a(95% confidence interval)
   Poorest 2nd Middle 4th Richest Total  
Delivery at health facility 2006 88.6 91.9 96.6 97.2 97.2 94.1 0.0206(0.0114, 0.0299)*
  2008 94.3 98.3 98.0 98.0 99.7 97.5 0.0053(0.0015, 0.0091)*
Delivery at county- or higher-level health facility 2006 16.1 23.9 22.2 26.1 38.8 25.8 0.1372(0.0711, 0.2033)*
2008 66.1 74.2 71.5 74.5 81.6 73.7 0.0309(0.0136, 0.0481)*
Home delivery 2006 11.1 7.2 3.3 2.8 2.2 5.0 −0.3566(−0.5417, −0.1715)*
2008 3.7 1.0 1.3 1.3 0.0 1.5 −0.3756(−0.7216, −0.0295)*
Any antenatal care 2006 96.1 97.2 97.2 98.3 99.4 97.7 0.0074(0.0016, 0.0133)*
2008 96.6 99.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 −0.0063(−0.0092, −0.0033)*
Antenatal care ≥5 times 2006 48.3 43.3 55.2 60.2 77.5 57.1 0.1305(−0.2791, 0.5401)
2008 49.8 66.4 68.8 64.0 80.9 66.8 0.0785(0.0574,0 .0995)*
Antenatal care within 12 weeks of pregnancy 2006 38.7 32.4 45.9 48.0 53.9 43.0 0.0956(0.0516, 0.1396)*
2008 68.4 75.3 74.1 77.2 83.9 75.8 0.0365(0.0197, 0.0532)*
Any postnatal visit 2006 50.6 33.9 58.3 33.3 43.6 42.5 0.07105(0.0282, 0.1139)*
2008 45.6 51.7 43.6 47.6 52.2 48.4 0.0355(0.0046, 0.0664)*
Postnatal visit ≥3 times 2006 32.8 19.4 26.7 10.0 26.8 22.1 0.0602(−0.0091, 0.1294)
2008 28.9 27.9 23.0 26.9 30.9 27.9 0.0527(0.0042, 0.1014)*
Antenatal care ≥5 times and postnatal visit ≥3 times 2006 22.2 8.9 17.8 6.7 23.5 15.2 0.1354(0.0461, 0.2248)*
2008 16.8 21.5 19.1 19.8 26.1 21.0 0.1172(0.0583, 0.1761)*
C-section 2006 18.9 18.9 16.1 23.3 23.5 20.0 0.0426(−0.0329, 0.1182)
2008 24.9 24.3 24.0 23.5 20.1 23.3 −0.0629(−0.1165, −0.0093)*
  1. CI aconcentration index.
  2. *P < 0.05, for t-test comparison with CI = 0. A negative value of the CI was expected to indicate a higher rate among the poorer people.