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Table 1 DEA input and output variables

From: Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China

Category Variables Definition
Inputs Actual number of open beds The number of available bed days divided by the number of days in a year
Number of employees Registered employees at the end of year, excluding retirees and temporary staff
Fixed assets Tangible assets having been used more than one year with values amounting to specific standards and with their original physical attributes not changed
Total expenditure Capital consumption and loss in the process of service provision and other activities, including healthcare expenditure, drug and medicine expenditure, special financial expenditure, etc.
Outputs Number of outpatient and emergency visits The number of patients coming for outpatient and emergency diagnostic services
Number of discharged patients The number of discharged patients after hospitalization for various reasons
Total revenue Revenue gained from service provision and other activities, including healthcare revenue, drug and medicine sales, financial subsidies, health administrative department subsidies, etc.