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Table 3 Estimates of socio-demographics for access to prenatal care

From: Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy

Variables Logit FE-Logit RE-Logit REM-Logit CI (95%)
Age ≤ 20 1.65*** 1.64*** 1.65*** 1.65*** 1.39 1.97
  (0.149) (0.149) (0.149) (0.149)   
Age 30 – 39 0.79*** 0.78*** 0.79*** 0.79*** 0.72 0.86
  (0.036) (0.036) (0.036) (0.036)   
Age > 39 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.82 1.15
  (0.084) (0.084) (0.084) (0.084)   
Nationality: EU-27 2.67*** 2.70*** 2.69*** 2.69*** 2.38 3.05
  (0.169) (0.174) (0.172) (0.172)   
Nationality: Extra EU-27 2.49*** 2.56*** 2.55*** 2.55*** 2.31 2.82
  (0.127) (0.131) (0.130) (0.130)   
Education: Medium 1.17*** 1.16** 1.15** 1.15** 1.03 1.29
  (0.067) (0.068) (0.067) (0.067)   
Education: Low 1.49*** 1.46*** 1.46*** 1.45*** 1.28 1.65
  (0.094) (0.094) (0.093) (0.093)   
Occupation: Blue collar 0.88* 0.88* 0.88* 0.88* 0.76 1.02
  (0.064) (0.064) (0.065) (0.065)   
Occupation: Unemployed 1.33*** 1.41*** 1.39*** 1.39*** 1.17 1.65
  (0.115) (0.126) (0.123) (0.123)   
Occupation: Student 1.54*** 1.55*** 1.55*** 1.55*** 1.15 2.09
  (0.233) (0.235) (0.235) (0.235)   
Occupation: Housewife 1.45*** 1.39*** 1.42*** 1.42*** 1.22 1.65
  (0.112) (0.110) (0.111) (0.111)   
Marital status: Unmarried 1.41*** 1.45*** 1.44*** 1.44*** 1.32 1.58
  (0.066) (0.068) (0.068) (0.068)   
Parity: 1+ 1.53*** 1.52*** 1.53*** 1.53*** 1.41 1.66
  (0.064) (0.064) (0.064) (0.064)   
Deprivation index: sed2     0.89 0.64 1.25
     (0.154)   
Deprivation index: sed3     0.92 0.76 1.12
     (0.091)   
Deprivation index: sed4     1.05 0.83 1.34
     (0.130)   
Year: 2006 0.87** 0.89* 0.88** 0.88** 0.78 1
  (0.057) (0.058) (0.057) (0.057)   
Year: 2007 0.86** 0.86** 0.86** 0.86** 0.75 0.98
  (0.057) (0.057) (0.057) (0.057)   
Year: 2008 0.84*** 0.83*** 0.83*** 0.83*** 0.73 0.94
  (0.054) (0.054) (0.054) (0.054)   
Year: 2009 0.73*** 0.73*** 0.73*** 0.73*** 0.64 0.83
  (0.049) (0.049) (0.049) (0.049)   
Year: 2010 0.70*** 0.69*** 0.69*** 0.69*** 0.6 0.78
  (0.047) (0.046) (0.046) (0.046)   
Constant 0.05*** 0.03*** 0.05*** 0.05*** 0.04 0.06
  (0.005) (0.014) (0.005) (0.006)   
σu    0.271 0.26 0.19 0.36
    (0.042) (0.042)   
Ρ    0.021 0.02 0.01 0.04
    (0.007) (0.006)   
LR test for ρ = 0    83.26*** 66.02***   
Observations 37,088 37,024 37,088 37,088   
Adj. R-squared 0.08 0.09 . .   
Number of municipalities    91 91   
  1. Notes: The confidence interval (CI) at 95% significance level refers to the ReM-Logit model (see text). Standard errors in brackets. Significant levels as follows: p-value *** ≤ 0.01, ** ≤ 0.05, * ≤ 0.1.
  2. Outcome of interest: odds ratios between being late in first visit (LFV) versus regular timing of first visit (RFV).