- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
A case study of outsourced primary healthcare services in Sindh, Pakistan: is this a real reform?
© Tanzil et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 4 June 2013
- Accepted: 16 June 2014
- Published: 25 June 2014
Since a decade, low and middle income countries have a rising trend of contracting their primary healthcare services to NGOs. In Pakistan, public sector often lacks capacity to effectively & equitably manage the healthcare services. It led the government to outsource the administration of primary health care services to a semi-autonomous government entity i.e. Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI). This small scale study has assessed the quality of healthcare services at the contracted Basic Health Units (BHUs) with the PPHI and compared it with those managed by the local district government in the province of Sindh.
A cross-sectional mix methods survey was conducted in November 2011. Two BHUs of each type were selected from the districts Karachi and Thatta in Sindh province. BHUs were selected randomly and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the study participants at the two study sites. Focus group discussions were conducted with patients visiting the facility while in-depth interviews were conducted with service providers. An observation based resource availability checklist was also administered.
There was a significant difference between the PPHI and the district government administered BHUs with regard to infrastructure, availability of essential medicines, basic medical appliances, mini-lab facilities and vehicles for referrals. These BHUs were found to have sufficient number of trained clinical staff and no punctuality and retention issues whatsoever. The district government administered BHUs presented a dismal picture in all the aspects.
Out-sourcing of primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved certain aspects quality and responsiveness of primary healthcare services. This strategy is likely to achieve an efficient and perhaps an equitable healthcare delivery in low and middle income countries where governments have limited capacity to manage healthcare services.
- Primary health care
- Basic health units
The evidence from low and middle income countries shows a considerable difference between quality of healthcare services delivered by public and private providers. This difference in quality of care is more relatively more obvious at the level of facility management . A systematic review of private and public health care services in low and middle income countries suggest that private sector is performing better in term of drug availability and aspects of delivery of care, including responsiveness and is relatively more client orientated . This lack of capacity within public sectors has resulted in an increased trend of contracting their primary health care services to non-government organizations, non-state actors or to autonomous entities within the government system. The literature however is still not able to conclude the effectiveness of outsourcing as a type of health system reform because the evidence from different parts of world shows variable outcomes . The studies from Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Cambodia indicate that non-governmental entities did better even when they had the same or fewer resources than the public institutions [1, 4]. On the other hand, contracting out examples from Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia, still fail to show expected results and success in providing an effective and equitable healthcare delivery even after years of a health reform. Many countries such as Afghanistan, Egypt and Islamic Republic of Iran, experience with outsourcing is comparatively new and hence it is not appropriate to make conclusions before providing the system enough time to show remarkable achievements [1, 4, 5].
In Pakistan, lack of government’s capacity to manage healthcare services and failure to ensure accessibility and equity have compelled the country to outsource the primary health care services mainly the Basic Health Units, and to hand over the management to the non-government or autonomous organizations. People’s Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI), formerly known as the Prime Minister Healthcare Initiative was started in October 2005 to contract out the first level healthcare facilities (FLCFs) in all four provinces to a semi-government body the Punjab Rural Support Program [6, 7]. Successful experiences led the government to scale-up this contracting model for the rest of the FLCFs in other parts of the country. In Sindh, currently 23 districts are working under PPHI management and public feedback is reported to be fairly encouraging . Nevertheless, the debate is still on regarding long term implications of this particular type of health reform. Evidences support the performance of PPHI BHUs but failed to show significant differences due to too early evaluations without providing sufficient times to show significant improvement in healthcare with equity and increased accessibility .
Comparison of the characteristics of PPHI and DG administered basic health units
PPHI administered primary health canter facility1
DG administered primary health canter facility2
Average travel time to reach BHUs (in minutes)
Average no. of patients attending BHUs
Average waiting time at BHUs (in minutes)
Average number of Patients per day attending OPD
Average number of healthcare staff present in OPD
Number of ambulance for referral of emergency cases
Number of dental surgeons available for dental procedures
Average number of Ultrasound machine
The study objective was to assess the range and quality of healthcare services at the Basic Health Units (BHUs) in Sindh, administered by the district governments as compared to the Basic Health Units which are being contracted and now managed by the Peoples’ Primary Healthcare Initiative.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November, 2011. We selected two districts of the province Sindh as our main study sites based on the difference in their administrative set up at the FLCF. The first one being the District Thatta, a rapidly growing district with heavy demands on the resources of the city, coupled with the general lack of interest on the part of the local administration and suffers from a severe lack of basic services which has resulted in contracting in to all its BHUs through PPHI (to rural health support program; a semi government entity) about 2 years back. Second one was the District Karachi, representing the settings where albums are still managed by the conventional set up of the District Health Department of Sindh government. The rapid expansion of the city has resulted in development of many peri-urban populations where BHUs are the only source for seeking health care.
Two BHUs were selected from each study site. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants and Denzin’s methodological triangulation technique was adapted to reduce bias and increase reliability of results, i.e. involving multiple investigators in data collection, using multiple techniques such as individual in-depth interviews, observations regarding available healthcare facilities and the focus group discussions.
What is the organization and structure of BHU?
What type of services and healthcare facilities are provided at BHUs?
What are some of major barriers faced in implementation of Primary Healthcare?
What are the patients perception regarding service quality and reasons for attending that particular healthcare facility?
What are the suggestions of health care providers and patients for improvement of the health care system?
Summarizing study population number, characteristics, data collection techniques
Assessment techniques and key persons interviewed
FGD with 2 dispensers, 2 LHVs, 2 female medical officer, 1 female Sonologist,
FGD with 6 patients
Individual interview with In-charge medical officer
Individual interview from EPI-coordinator
FGD with 2 dispensers, 1 technician
FGD with 2 midwives and 2 LHVs
FGD with 4 patients
Individual interview with female medical officer
Individual interview with In-charge medical Officer
FGD with 9 patients
FGD with two LHVs and three LHWs
Individual interview with 2 female medical officers
Individual interview with 1 male medical officer
individual interviews with 1 dispenser
FGD with 6 patients
FGD with 2 midwives
Individual interview with 1 Dispenser
The study was ethically reviewed and approved by the ethical review committee the Community Medicine Residency Program of the Aga Khan University.
Thematic Analysis applied for qualitative information by using software NVivo version II. Data was analyzed separately for two different categories i.e. BHUs contracted out to PPHI and the BHUs managed by the District Government. Themes were developed, discussed among researchers and validated as the data collection proceeded. Descriptive frequencies and the means were calculated for few quantitative variables using SPSS version19.
PPHI administered BHUs as compared to district administered BHUs showed significant differences in terms of infrastructure and the availability of essential services.
“We have to cover long distances by foot and it consumes lot of our time and then long waiting time is another issue for us, especially for housewives.”
(35 year old married lady, patient at PPHI managed BHU).
Issues & hurdles faced in Implementation of PHC
BHU as per its administrative authority
Observation regarding healthcare setting
1. PPHI (A)
Well-equipped functioning Dental OPD, General and Obstetric OPD with ultrasound facility for Obstetric patients, Family planning facilities, Immunization facility including Rabies and Anti-snake venom globulins, broad range of essential medicines is available
2. PPHI (B)
Well-equipped functioning Dental OPD, General and Obstetric OPD with no ultrasound facility, Family planning facilities, Immunization facility including Rabies and Anti-snake venom globulins, all essential medicines are available
3. DG (C)
Delivery facility with very limited postpartum care. Very basic medical tools were found such as B.P apparatus and thermometer. No ultrasound facility or Mini lab services, limited essential medicines are available
4. DG( D)
No delivery facility, only antenatal care was provided. Very basic medical tools were found such as B.P apparatus and thermometer. No ultrasound facility or Mini lab services, limited essential medicines are available
“We have to go miles away to avail medical care if one develops any emergency complain after1:00 pm, we wish, if the doctor can stay longer at this facility.”
(A 40 year old married male; patient at district government managed BHU).
The retention of healthcare providers was another challenge as many of them were not satisfied with their salaries. At both type of BHUs, all the services were provided free of cost, however, in the PPHI managed BHUs all the staff was punctual and qualified providing patient oriented care. Ambulance and trained driver were also available for in time referral of emergency cases to district hospital.
Comparison of medicines availability among PPHI and DG administered basic health units
List of medications available in BHU pharmacy (comparison of PPHI with district government administered BHUs)
PPHI administered BHUs
District government administered BHUs
Ciprofloxacin, Amoxil, Gentamycin, Vibromycin, Metronidazole
Co-trimaxole, Metronidazole, Nalidixic Acid
Paracetamol, Diclofenac Sodium, Ibuprofen, Ponstan-forte
Pyodine, Tincture, Methylalcohal
Cough syrup and anti-allergic
Chlophenaramine Syrup, Cetrizine tablet
Folic Acid, Ferrous Sulphate, Vit-B Complex
Folic Acid, Ferrous sulphate
Ranitidine, Mg Sulphate, Omeprazole
Normal saline, Ringer lactate
Normal saline, Ringer lactate
ORS, Premethrin Lotion, Traneximic Acid
ORS, Premethrin Lotion, Gention violet
“We are poor; that’s why we come here but it’s useless to come here if they cannot provide us free medicines for very minor illnesses.”
(27 years old, married woman; patient in district government managed BHU).
Staff punctuality was identified as one of the major issues in BHUs managed by the district government and particularly lack of physicians’ availability for consultation was one of the most reported complains by patients as well as dispensers working at the BHUs. Many of the visiting patients were unaware of the available resource physician assigned to their respective facility.
“I trust more on the dispenser than the doctor who comes seldom and I am satisfied with the treatment provided by the dispenser”.
(37 years old female patient; in district government managed BHU)
Lack of appropriate antenatal care including the facility’s capacity to provide Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care, lack of ultrasound facility, unavailability of minilab and dental care facilities were observed at the BHUs managed by the district government. Unavailability of ambulance facility in case of emergency or referral was another concern of the patients at the district government BHUs. Study observations showed that the PPHI managed BHUs were providing all the above mentioned essential healthcare services. On the other hand, the district government associated BHUs were found to have poor performance mainly owning to a weak infrastructure.
This study is an after only, cross-sectional comparison, and it is quite evident from the results that the primary healthcare services were better managed in the PPHI administered BHUs as compared to the district government administered BHUs. These results of our study concur with the findings of other studies conducted in Bangladesh and Cambodia where the contracted NGOs did much better than the public sector health centers [10, 11]. Moreover those studies also indicated positive and significant effects of contracting health indicators of the communities served. Contracting of PHC services in Pakistan was first done in the district Rahim Yar Khan (RYK) where 104 BHUs were handed over to a nongovernmental organization and according to a third party evaluation utilization of BHUs, physical conditions, availability of drugs, staff punctuality improved significantly . However, it is to be noted that in RYK, staff salaries were increased up to 150% while in PPHI administered BHUs low staff salary was one of the issues responsible for an insufficient human resource.
In our study too, the PPHI managed BHUs were found to have improved infrastructure, staff attendance and availability of essential medicines. Studies conducted in Guatemala and Romania reported a higher level of patient satisfaction under the contracted out health centers due to these factors [11, 12]. Our finding is also consistent with third party evaluation report showing that availability of essential drugs was better in the PPHI administered BHUs, with 42.5% highly satisfactory or satisfactory against 13.9% in DDOH administered BHUs .
Patients complain about the long distance from their residence, for both PPHI as well as the district administered BHU. Studies conducted in different countries showed that one of the main aims of contracting strategies was to improve access to care. Our results do suggest that contracting in/out health care services does have an effect on access to care with respect to increase in the number of patients seeking care in PPHI administered BHUs as compared to district administered BHUs, however the average travel time was similar in BHUs administered by PPHI as well as of the district government. This could be a reason because of the limited number of facilities and the agreement with PPHI did not include the provision to increase the number of BHUs per se.
Complaints regarding long waiting time in PPHI administered BHUs (35 ± 8.16 minutes) as compared to district administered BHUs (21.9 ± 5.57 minutes) is a finding similar to the third party evaluation report in which 82.5% of PPHI BHU patients and 88.3% of DoH patients are seen within 30 minutes . This could be attributed to the patients load which was approximately 3 times higher in PPHI administered BHUs than the district administered BHUs in our study. Similar increase in patient load was observed in study conducted in RYK in which there was fourfold increase in the service utilization immediately after contracting out strategy [13, 14]. Similar results were also reported in studies conducted elsewhere [9, 15]. According to healthcare providers, lack of human resource and retention of healthcare providers because of non-satisfactory salaries were the major challenges faced by PPHI administered BHUs. It was also highlighted in a study in which low salaries and poor human resource management was considered to be the main cause of lack of effectiveness of government programs as well as corruption . In case of Pakistan it might be important to point out that PPHI cost the government the exact same amount as district managed BHUs. The point is that it’s not increased resources that explain the difference.
In BHUs administered by the district government, unavailability of physician was one of the major complaints which is also reported in another study conducted in the Attock district, Pakistan in which 20% of the respondent claimed that physicians were unavailable at BHUs and rural health centers. This is mainly because of inappropriate human resource management policies and regulations in Pakistan, which has eventually led to a complete lack of accountability and a laid back attitude among the physicians and other staff of primary health care, in particular [17, 18].
Therefore, it is of utmost importance to enhance the capacity of the district governments to oversee and manage such contracts and ensure a transparent and competitive process of contracting basic health care services [19, 20].
With the implications of contracting health care services to the semi government or private organizations, careful attention is also needed to safeguard ethical, methodological, accountability, sustainability and governance related issues in such reforms. Government must also define its role explicitly in designing, implementing, monitoring and regulating such contracts to ensure their sustainability.
It was a brief audit of BHUs administered by two different entities. The quality of services was assessed mainly using qualitative methodology and limited information was collected regarding quantitative variables i.e. average number of antenatal visits, average number of children vaccinated each day, staff salaries. Moreover limited numbers of in-depth interviews were conducted from doctors who might be the potential key informants due to work load at the time of interview. This study was conducted in a rural district of Sind Thatta currently facing sever health related challenges and poor health system performance. This might limit the application of findings in better performing districts of the country in terms of health system. However this study adds on our current information regarding performance of health care systems under two different entities.
Out-sourcing of the primary healthcare facilities has resulted in significantly improved quality of healthcare services. This strategy seems to achieve an equitable healthcare delivery in the low and middle income countries where governments have a limited capacity to manage the healthcare services. Contracting may thus prove to be an effective way to rebuild and reorient the primary healthcare, hence contributing to the overall health system strengthening in the developing countries.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of post graduate trainees from the Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, who helped in data collection of this study. We are thankful to Dr. Adeel Khan, Dr. Amin Pethani, Dr. Aneeta Khoso, Dr. Mubashir Zafar and Dr. Unaib Rabbani as well as Community Medicine Residency Program of the Aga Khan University for providing intellectual and logistic support to conduct this study.
- Berendes S, Heywood P, Oliver S, Garner P: Quality of private and public ambulatory health care in low and middle income countries: systematic review of comparative studies. PLoS Med. 2011, 8 (4): e1000433-10.1371/journal.pmed.1000433.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Basu S, Andrews J, Kishore S, Panjabi R, Stuckler D: Comparative performance of private and public healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2012, 9 (6): e1001244-10.1371/journal.pmed.1001244.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shaikh BT, Rabbani F: District health system- a challenge that still remains. East Mediterr Health J. 2004, 10 (1/2): 208-214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization: The role of contractual arrangements in improving health sector performance Pakistan. Experience from countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. 2007, Cairo: WHO EMRO publicationGoogle Scholar
- Siddiqi S, Masud TI, Sabri S: Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Bull World Health Organ. 2006, 84 (11): 867-75.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Technical Resource Facility: Third Party Evaluation of the National Tuberculosis Control Program - NTP Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations. 2010, Islamabad: Technical Resource Facility – TRF/HLSPGoogle Scholar
- Sabih F, Bille KM, Buehler W, Hafeez A, Nishtar S, Siddiqi S: Implementing the district health system in the framework of primary health care in Pakistan: can the evolving reforms enhance the pace towards the Millennium Development Goals?. East Mediterr Health J. 2010, 16Suppl: S132-S144.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization: Alma Ata 1978: Primary Health Care. Health for All Sr. No. 1. 1978, Alma AtaGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization: Quality of Care: A Process for Making Strategic Choices in Health Systems. 2006, Geneva: WHO Press, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- Asian Development Bank: Achieving the twin objectives of efficiency and equity: contacting health services in Cambodia. ERD Policy Brief Series, Economics and Research Department. 2002, http://www.adb.org/publications/achieving-twin-objectives-efficiency-and-equity contracting- health-services-cambodia [accessed on 3rd September 2013]Google Scholar
- Bhushan I, Bloom E, Clingingsmith D, Hong R, King E, Kremer M, Loevinsohn B, Schwartz JB: Contracting for health: evidence from Cambodia. 2007, Cambridge MA: Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
- World Bank: Partnering with NGOs to strengthen management: An external evaluation of the Chief Minister’s initiative on Primary Health Care in Rahim Yar Khan District, Punjab. South Asia Human Development Sector. 2006, Islamabad, http://www.monde.org/en/all-content/news/partnering-with-ngos-to-strengthenmanagement-an-external-evaluation-of-the-chief-minister-s-initiative/ [accessed on 10th September 2013]Google Scholar
- Danel I, La Forgia FM: Contracting for basic health services in rural Guatemala –comparison of performance of three delivery models. Health System Innovations in Central America: lessons and impact of new approaches. Edited by: La Forgia GM. 2005, WASHINGTON, DC: World Bank Technical Paper No. 54Google Scholar
- Vladescu C, Radulescu S: Improving primary health care: output-based contracting in Romania. Contracting for Public Services: Output-Based Aid and its Applications. Edited by: Brook PJ, Smith SM. 2001, Washington, DC: World Bank and International Finance CorporationGoogle Scholar
- Shaikh BT, Hatcher J: Health seeking behaviour and health services utilization trends in national health survey of Pakistan: what needs to be done?. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007, 57 (8): 411-414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ali MS: Innovative health management – RahimYar Khan District, Islamabad. 2005, Islamabad: CIDA Devolution Support ProjectGoogle Scholar
- Lavadenz F, Schwab N, Straatman H: Public, decentralized, and community health networks in Bolivia. Pan-Am Rev Public Health. 2001, 9: 182-9.Google Scholar
- Jooma R, Khan A, Khan AA: Protecting Pakistan’s health during the global economic crisis. East Mediterr Health J. 2012, 18 (3): 287-93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siddiqi S, Kielmann A, Khan M, Ali N, Ghaffar A, Sheikh U, Mumtaz Z: The effectiveness of patient referral in Pakistan. Health Policy Plann. 2001, 16 (2): 193-198. 10.1093/heapol/16.2.193.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shaikh BT, Rabbani F, Safi N, Dawar Z: Contracting of primary health care services in Pakistan: is up-scaling a pragmatic thinking?. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010, 60 (5): 387-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/14/277/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.