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Table 3 Estimates for fixed effects between individual and contextual-level characteristics on PCEC utilization

From: Factors associated with the utilization of primary care emergency centers in a Spanish region with high population dispersion: a mixed-methods study

VARIABLES   MODEL 1 MODEL 2 MODEL 3 MODEL 4
Individual variables p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI
Sex (ref: female)             
  - Male 0.094 1.25 (0.96;1.62) 0.031 1.32 (1.03;1.71) 0.029 1.33 (1.03;1.72) 0.028 1.33 (1.03;1.73)
Age (ref: 15–34 years old.)             
  - 35–64 years old 0.001 0.54 (0.38;0.77) <0.001 0.46 (0.32;0.67) <0.001 0.46 (0.32;0.67) <0.001 0.46 (0.31;0.66)
  - 65 years old and over <0.001 0.44 (0.28;0.67) <0.001 0.28 (0.17;0.46) <0.001 0.28 (0.17;0.46) <0.001 0.28 (0.17;0.46)
Reduction of regular activity (ref: no)             
  - Yes 0.014 1.84 (1.13;2.99) 0.108 1.55 (0.91;2.65) 0.111 1.55 (0.90;2.65) 0.104 1.56 (0.91;2.67)
Self-rated health (ref: negative)             
  - Positive 0.011 0.70 (0.53;0.92) 0.003 0.62 (0.45;0.85) 0.004 0.62 (0.45;0.86) 0.003 0.62 (0.45;0.85)
Number of chronic conditions (ref: none)             
  - 1-2 conditions 0.462 1.14 (0.81;1.59) 0.127 1.31 (0.93;1.84) 0.123 1.31 (0.93;1.84) 0.117 1.31 (0.93;1.84)
  - Over 2 conditions 0.29 1.19 (0.86;1.65) 0.028 1.56 (1.05;2.31) 0.017 1.61 (1.09;2.39) 0.018 1.61 (1.08;2.38)
SES (ref: low -IV, V)             
  - I-III (high) 0.005 0.64 (0.47;0.87) 0.014 0.68 (0.50;0.92) 0.02 0.70 (0.52;0.94) 0.022 0.70 (0.52;0.95)
Municipal-level variables             
Emergency care centers (ref: HES + PCEC)            
  - PCEC only 0.001 2.45 (1.48;4.05)     <0.001 2.57 (1.56;4.25) <0.001 2.46 (1.49;4.05)
  - No emergency care 0.863 1.05 (0.63;1.73)     0.579 1.16 (0.69;1.93) 0.528 1.18 (0.70;1.99)
Average SES (ref: T1- lowest)             
  - T2 0.976 1.01 (0.59;1.73)        0.854 1.05 (0.63;1.76)
  - T3 (highest) 0.264 0.74 (0.43;1.26)        0.272 0.75 (0.44;1.26)
% Households without a vehicle, (ref:T1: up to 30%)             
  - T2 (30-35%) 0.115 1.62 (0.89;2.96)        0.186 1.45 (0.84;2.49)
  - T3 (over 35%) 0.955 0.98 (0.58;1.68)        0.977 0.99 (0.59;1.67)
  1. PCEC: Primary care emergency center; p: probability; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence intervals; SES: Socio-economic Status; HES: Hospital Emergency Services; T: tertile.
  2. Model 1: univariate estimates; Model 2: Individuals variables; Model 3: Model 2 + emergency care centers; Model 4:individual variables + contextual variables.