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Table 4 Instrumental variable two stage least squares regression estimates of CBSA-level unemployment and cost per discharge by primary expected payer with CBSA random- or fixed-effects, adjusted for patient, population, and market characteristics 2005-2010 †§

From: Association between the unemployment rate and inpatient cost per discharge by payer in the United States, 2005–2010

  All-payer Medicare Commercial
  Hausman test p < .05 Hausman test p > .05 Hausman test p < .05
Fixed-effects Random-effects Fixed-effects
n = 2,461 n = 2,461 n = 2,461
(459 CBSAs and 6 time periods) (459 CBSAs and 6 time periods) (459 CBSAs and 6 time periods)
Unemployment rate Coeff Coeff Coeff
Age16+ unemployed (%) 47.02 48.61 37.44
  1. Source: AHRQ, Center for Delivery, Organization and Markets from 46 states (AK, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY).
  2. Commercial includes non-maternal adults aged 40 to 64 years.
  3. §Adjusted for Area Wage Index.
  4. Coefficients in bold indicate p < .05.