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Table 3 Background on the implementation of the selected initiatives

From: Diabetes self-management arrangements in Europe: a realist review to facilitate a project implemented in six countries

Initiative Country Background information
Diabetic Retinopathy Screening UK Political commitment to an all-Wales screening service [14, 62].
DAFNE UK Multicentre trial under Diabetes UK, based on programme developed by a German group [15, 17].
LAY UK The philosophy and push came from the Long Term Condition Alliance. Signed up to the US scheme of LTCM [25, 63, 64].
Portsmouth Primary Care Trust UK Started outside governmental knowledge on EPP, in collaboration with Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust [28].
UCL-DSMP UK University-run trial [29].
Librae UK Model with the intention to enter routine clinical practice [30].
Diabetes Manual UK University-developed package [32, 65].
DESMOND UK Collaborative of NHS organisations, co-ordinating centre hosted by University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust [41, 66].
X-PERT UK Variant on the DESMOND programme, local factors implicated [44].
BITES UK Variant on the DAFNE programme, university funded [45].
Diabetes Virtual Clinic UK Pilot study, internally university funded [48, 50].
Birmingham Own Health UK Sponsored in part by the private sector in a mixed model of health economy [2, 67].
Whole Systems Model UK WISE, funded by National Institute for Health Research and National Primary Care Research and Development centre [12].
CBGT Netherlands Study funded by pharmaceutical funding [52].
Theory-driven Intervention Netherlands Intervention developed locally. Philosophy came from US scheme [54, 64].
Di@log Netherlands Trial funded by pharmaceutical funding [55].
Diabetes Coach Netherlands Study supported by local primary healthcare foundation and home care organisation [56].
DIEP.info Netherlands University-run local programme [57].
Diabetes Self-Management Education Norway Supported by state-owned authorities [59].
eHealth Spain Partially funded by the European Commission, under the 7th Framework Programme [60].
DEPB Bulgaria Implemented by the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria [7].