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Table 1 Definitions of Variables

From: Household out-of-pocket medical expenditures and national health insurance in Taiwan: income and regional inequality

Dependent Variable
Variable Definition
   Expenditures Continuous variable: total household annual out-of-pocket medical expenditures
Independent Variable
   Demographic variables (Economic Household Head, EHH)
Married Dummy variable = 1 if EHH is currently married, otherwise = 0 including never married, widowed, separated and divorced.
Male Dummy variable = 1 if EHH is male.
Employed Dummy variable = 1 if EHH is employed.
Age  
25–44 Dummy variable = 1 if EHH's age in this range.
45–64 Dummy variable = 1 if EHH's age in this range.
65 and above Dummy variable = 1 if EHH's age in this range. (EHH's age under 25 is the default variable.)
Education  
Junior high Dummy variable = 1 if EHH finished Junior high school.
Senior (vocational) high Dummy variable = 1 if EHH finished senior (or vocational) high school.
Junior college Dummy variable = 1 if EHH finished Junior college.
College and above Dummy variable = 1 if EHH finished college and above. (Primary school and below is the default variable.)
Family members Dummy variable = 1 if the number of household members ≥ 4.
   NHI Dummy variable = 1 if EHH is from the post-national health insurance cohort.
   Household income  
Lower 20%~2nd quintile Dummy variable = 1 if family income is lower 20%.
Middle 20%~3rd quintile Dummy variable = 1 if family income is middle 20%.
Higher 20%~4th quintile Dummy variable = 1 if family income is higher 20%.
Highest 20%~5th quintile Dummy variable = 1 if family income is highest 20%. (Lowest 20%~1st quintile is the default variable)
   Regional variables  
Center Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in: Taichung Hsien, Changhwa Hsien, Nantou Hsien, Yunlin Hsien, Taichung City.
South Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in: Chiayi Hsien, Tainan Hsien, Kaohsiung Hsien, Pingtung Hsien, Kaohsiung Municipality, Chiayi City, Tainan City.
East Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in: Taitung Hsien, Hwalien Hsien, Penghu Hsien.
North Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in: Taipei Hsien, Keelung City, Ilan Hsien, Taoyuan Hsien, Hsinchu Hsien, Miaoli Hsien, and Taipei Municipality. (North is the default variable)
  1. A person in the household who earns the largest personal share of pay in family income is considered to be the economic household head.