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Table 3 Bivariate Analyses of All Opioid Misusers (N = 62)

From: Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study

  Non-Misusers Misusers p-value RR (95% CI)
Age 54 48 < 0.001  
% Male 38 59.7 0.005 1.56 (1.16 – 2.11)
CES-D 22.5 26.0 0.080  
PDI 45.1 45.6 0.838  
REALM 50.7 53.5 0.492  
% Current Smoker 50 71 0.007 1.41 (1.12 – 1.79)
% History of Ethanol Abuse 23 44 0.004 1.95 (1.25 – 3.03)
% History of Cocaine Abuse 21 68 < 0.001 3.30 (2.17 – 4.99)
% Positive Urine Cannabinoids 12 33 0.001 2.70 (1.5 – 4.85)
% Multiple Drug Convictions 1 11 0.001 15.13 (1.90 – 120)
% Drug or DUI Convictions 11 40 0.001 3.60 (2.05 – 6.34)