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Table 1 Practice guidelines for HbA1c treatment target and management of ocular health in patients with diabetes.

From: Care of vision and ocular health in diabetic members of a national diabetes organization: A cross-sectional study

  Norway* United Kingdom USA Australia§
HbA1c treatment target     
   Children/Type 1 < 18 years   < 7.5% < 7%  
   Type 1 > 18 years   < 7.5% < 7%  
   Type 2   6.5–7.5% < 7%  
   Younger (<80 years) < 7%   < 7%  
   Older (>80 years) < 9%   < 7%  
Screening for diabetic retinopathy     
   First examination     
   Children/Type 1<18 years   At age 12 years   At puberty
   < 30 years/Type 1 5 years after diagnosis At diagnosis 5 years after diagnosis At diagnosis
   > 30 years/Type 2 At diagnosis At diagnosis At diagnosis At diagnosis
   Follow-up in absence of retinopathy     
   Children/Type 1 < 18 years   Annually Annually At least biannually
   < 30 years/Type 1 Annually Annually Annually At least biannually
   > 30 years/Type 2 Annually/Biannually Annually Annually At least biannually
   Follow-up in retinopathy Individual Individual Individual Individual
  1. Norwegian practice guidelines compared to practice guidelines in the United Kingdom, USA and Australia at the time (2005) of the study.
  2. *The Norwegian College of General Practitioners, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, American Diabetes Association, §National Health and Medical Research Council