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Table 2 Demographic and medical characteristics of responders with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (n = 1,352), n (%)

From: Care of vision and ocular health in diabetic members of a national diabetes organization: A cross-sectional study

  All patients (n = 1,352) Type 1 (n = 451) Type 2 (n = 901)
Sex distribution       
   Female 699 (51.7) 247 (54.8) 452 (50.2)
   Male 653 (48.3) 204 (45.2) 449 (49.8)
Age distribution*       
   < 20 years 7 (0.5) 6 (1.3) 1 (0.1)
   21–30 years 55 (4.1) 54 (12.0) 1 (0.1)
   31–40 years 108 (8.0) 87 (19.3) 21 (2.3)
   41–50 years 185 (13.7) 106 (23.5) 79 (8.8)
   51–60 years 315 (23.3) 91 (20.2) 224 (24.9)
   61–70 years 349 (25.8) 71 (15.7) 278 (30.9)
   71–80 years 261 (19.3) 30 (6.7) 231 (25.6)
   81–90 years 72 (5.3) 6 (1.3) 66 (7.3)
Mean age (sd) 59 (± 15) 48 (± 15) 64 (± 11)
Mean duration of diabetes (sd) 14 (± 12) 22 (± 14) 10 (± 9)
Mean HbA1c at last diabetes follow up (sd) § 7.3 (± 1.2) 7.5 (± 1.0) 7.1 (± 1.3)
HbA1c within guideline treatment target*       
   All patients (HbA1c <7%/<9% depending on age) 461 (41.2) 107 (26.4) 354 (49.6)
   Patients = 80 years (HbA1c <7%) 420 (39.1) 103 (25.6) 317 (47.2)
   Patients > 80 years (HbA1c <9%) 41 (87.2) 4 (100) 37 (86.0)
Stable blood glucose level previous year 845 (63.9) 258 (58.6) 587 (66.6)
Diabetes treatment*       
   Diet (n = 757) 668 (88.2) 129 (66.2) 539 (95.9)
   Exercise (n = 657) 536 (81.6) 112 (59.6) 424 (90.4)
   Weight reduction (n = 430) 197 (45.8) 16 (10.4) 181 (65.6)
   Oral medication (n = 771) 564 (73.2) 16 (10.3) 548 (89.1)
   Insulin (n = 896) 742 (82.8) 443 (99.8) 299 (66.2)
Blood pressure and cholesterol medication*       
   Blood pressure (n = 1,337) 687 (51.4) 142 (31.6) 545 (61.4)
   Cholesterol (n = 1,324) 591 (44.6) 123 (27.7) 468 (53.2)
Smoking       
   Present smoker (n = 1,345) 203 (15.1) 88 (19.6) 115 (12.8)
   Previous smoker (n = 1,306) 716 (54.8) 216 (50.2) 500 (57.1)
Known history of ocular disease       
   Cataract* (n = 1,019) 261 (25.6) 63 (17.2) 198 (30.4)
   Diabetic retinopathy* (n = 1,058) 182 (17.2) 91 (23.3) 91 (13.6)
   Glaucoma* (n = 905) 93 (10.3) 14 (4.2) 79 (13.8)
   Age-related macula degeneration (n = 857) 35 (4.1) 6 (1.9) 29 (5.4)
   Hypertensive/occlusive vascular retinopathy (n = 851) 19 (2.2) 3 (0.9) 16 (3.0)
Laser treated diabetes related ocular disease       
   History of diabetic retinopathy reported 105 (10.0) 57 (14.7) 48 (7.2)
   History of diabetic retinopathy not reported* 19 (1.8) 7 (1.8) 12 (1.8)
  1. Pearson chi-square *p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 between type 1 and type 2 diabetics.
  2. Data missing for 31,§ 232, 30 and 300 responders