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Table 1 The use of providers for the episodes of illness (%)

From: Choice of healthcare provider following reform in Vietnam

  Equalized household expenditure quintiles Total p-value
  Poorest 2 3 4 Richest   
No drug or service used 76(5.0) 53(3.3) 53(2.9) 56(3.1) 17(1.0) 255(3.0) **
Self treatment 470(31.0) 435(27.2) 480(26.7) 283(15.7) 242(14.5) 1910(22.8) **
Private providers 776(51.1) 887(55.5) 1060(58.9) 1170(65.1) 1105(66.4) 4998(59.6)  
   Traditional healer 63(4.2) 54(3.4) 107(5.9) 172(9.6) 190(11.4) 586(7.0) **
   Privatehealth care 713(47.0) 833(52.1) 953(52.9) 998(55.5) 915(55.0) 4412(52.6)  
Public providers 129(8.5) 128(8.0) 136(7.6) 220(12.2) 225(13.5) 838(10.0)  
   Commune health station 62(4.1) 56(3.5) 71(3.9) 66(3.7) 51(3.1) 306(3.7) **
   District health centre 47(3.1) 55(3.4) 35(1.9) 98(5.5) 119(7.2) 354(4.2) **
   Province/central hospital 20(1.3) 17(1.1) 30(1.7) 56(3.1) 55(3.3) 178(2.1) **
Mixed all 67(4.4) 96(6.0) 72(4.0) 69(3.8) 75(4.5) 379(4.5)  
Total number of episodes 1518(100) 1599(100) 1801(100) 1798(100) 1664(100) 8380(100)  
Perceived seriousness of illness        
   Can work 495(32.6) 569(35.6) 662(36.8) 702(39.0) 652(39.2) 3080(36.8)  
   Missed work 420(27.7) 532(33.3) 635(35.3) 654(36.4) 613(36.8) 2854(34.1) **
   Confine to bed 603(39.7) 498(31.1) 504(28.0) 442(24.6) 399(24.0) 2446(29.2) ***
Total number of episodes 1518(100) 1599(100) 1801(100) 1798(100) 1664(100) 8380(100)  
Total number of persons 479(100) 558(100) 577(100) 558(100) 555(100) 2727(100)  
  1. HH is the abbreviation of household; p-value for the comparison between the lowest and highest quintile groups; *** denotes significant at the 1% level; **denotes significant at 5% level. Percentage shares are shown within brackets.