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Table 4 Household curative expenditures per year by providers and expenditure quintiles in Vietnamese dong (%)

From: Choice of healthcare provider following reform in Vietnam

  Equalized household expenditure quintiles Total p-value
  Bottom 2 3 4 Top   
Self-treatment 44,930(17.3) 54,707(14.5) 71,020(14.1) 68,341(13.6) 62,575(8.7) 60,332(12.8) **
Provider(Public+private) 714,930(82.7) 322,547(85.5) 432,668(35.9) 434,280(86,4) 658,559(91.3) 412,615(87.2) **
Private providers 155,922(60.0) 214,627(56.9) 292,527(58.1) 326,895(65.0) 426,687(59.2) 283,346(59.9)  
   Traditional healer 19,962(7.7) 21,626(5.7) 45,266(9.0) 53,294(10.6) 40,181(5.6) 36,081(7.6) **
   Private healthcare 135,960(52.3) 193,001(51.2) 247,261(49.1) 273,602(54.4) 386,506(53.6) 247,266(52.3)  
Public providers 58,938(22.7) 107,920(28.6) 140,141(27.8) 107,385(21.4) 231,872(32.2) 129,269(27.3) **
   Commune health station 16,360(6.3) 19,848(5.3) 46,813(9.3) 19,328(3.8) 15,961(2.2) 23,699(5.0) **
   District health centre 17,034(6.6) 65,697(17.4) 52,600(10.4) 38,198(7.6) 54,522(7.6) 45,621(9.6) **
   Province/central hosp ital 25,544(9.8) 22,375(5.9) 40,728(8.1) 49,859(9.9) 161,389(22.4) 59,948(12.7) ***
Total curative 259,790(100) 377,255(100) 503,689(100) 502,622(100) 721,134(100) 472,947(100)  
  1. HH is the abbreviation of household; p-value for the comparison between the lowest and highest quintile groups; *** denotes significant at the 1% level; **denotes significant at 5% level. Percentage shares are shown within brackets.