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Table 5 Average household expenditure per episode by providers and expenditure quintiles in Vietnamese dong

From: Choice of healthcare provider following reform in Vietnam

  Equalized household expenditure quintiles Total
  Poorest 2 3 4 Richest  
Self treatment 11,854 15,595 18,495 29,945 32,063 19,616
providers (privatre+public) 31,755 42,504 46,344 40,127 63,059 45,887
Private providers 24,915 30,004 34,496 34,645 47,882 35,206
   Traditional healer 39,290 49,659 52,881 38,421 26,224 38,236
   Privatehealth care 23,645 28,730 32,432 33,995 52,379 34,803
Public providers 56,653 104,548 128,806 60,526 127,787 95,795
   Commune health station 32,719 43,950 82,418 36,314 38,808 48,096
   District health center 44,940 148,116 187,857 48,333 56,813 80,031
   Province/central hospital 158,375 163,206 169,700 110,402 363,858 209,144
   Total 23,428 33,997 38,228 38,354 58,179 39,191
  1. Table 5 shows that the average household expenditure per episode of illness is less for self-treatment (919,616 VND) and for private providers (35,206 VND) than for public providers (95,795 VND). The average household health expenditure for a single illness episode is higher for hospital treatment than for district health centres and commune health stations.
  2. HH is the abbreviation of household; p-value for the comparison between the lowest and highest quintile groups; *** denotes significant at the 1% level; **denotes significant at 5% level. Percentage shares are shown within brackets.