This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Empowerment interventions, knowledge translation and exchange: perspectives of home care professionals, clients and caregivers
© Tribble et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 30 June 2008
Accepted: 20 August 2008
Published: 20 August 2008
Few studies have examined empowerment interventions as they actually unfold in home care in the context of chronic health problems. This study aims to document the empowerment process as it plays out in interventions with adults receiving home care services.
The qualitative design chosen is a fourth generation evaluation combined with case studies. A home care team of a health and social services center situated in the Eastern Townships (Québec, Canada) will be involved at every step in the study. A sample will be formed of 15 health care professionals and 30 of their home care clients and caregiver. Semi-structured interviews, observations of home care interventions and socio-demographic questionnaires will be used to collect the data. Nine instruments used by the team in prior studies will be adapted and reviewed. A personal log will document the observers' perspectives in order to foster objectivity and the focus on the intervention. The in-depth qualitative analysis of the data will illustrate profiles of enabling interventions and individual empowerment.
The ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network creates a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients receiving home care services. This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment.
This study is part of a process to transform health care practices with the aim of strengthening empowerment of clients with chronic health problems. To achieve this objective, an in-depth analysis of home care interventions will be undertaken using an evolving model of empowerment interventions (enabling interventions). The intervention indicators were derived from the findings of previous studies [1–6].
This study is concept-oriented and empirical in nature and will help to further refine interventions supporting empowerment. It is in line with the reform of the Québec health care system that calls for a transition of services from health care facilities to programs that support people in their living environment. Along with this relocation of services, there is a political debate about how important it is for individuals and their families, caregivers and communities to take responsibility for their own health and the necessary steps to improve it [7, 8] This stance implies a modification of professional practices to support self-care. However, interventions supporting empowerment are not well documented, despite the aging of the population and the growing number of home care services following after a short hospital stay . The CSSS is the local authority at the heart of the health and social services network; it provides primary care services to the local population and ensures their accessibility, continuity and quality. It is essential that this organization use scientific knowledge to develop and deliver preventive and primary care adapted to the different needs of the population by supporting self-care initiatives and promoting autonomy.
Statement of the problem
The clients targeted in this study are adults with chronic health problems who receive home care services. The Ministère de la Santé et Services sociaux du Québec  identifies chronic diseases as the most important health problem of the century: "Chronic diseases develop slowly, persist over time, are often incurable and result in a disability and, above all, they claim many victims. Four chronic diseases are responsible for more than 70% of deaths in Québec every year. They are, in order of importance, cancers, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), respiratory diseases and diabetes." In the Eastern Townships alone, 51.4% of the population suffers from at least one chronic health problem and 19.7% live with activity limitations . The main health problems found in the Eastern Townships and particularly the City of Sherbrooke are cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, diabetes and breast cancer [11, 12]. These health problems often lead to long-term activity limitations requiring home care services . Moreover, family members (caregivers) frequently help with the care of individuals suffering from one or many chronic diseases and with the daily management required by these types of diseases. It was estimated that in 1996, 2.8 million Canadians aged 18 years and older provided help for a person with long-term limitations . In order to improve the health status of this clientele and family support, Québec's homecare services have adopted a framework that advocates interventions promoting empowerment. These interventions are aimed at enhancing clients' potential to learn and use the tools they need to live as independently as possible and to maintain or improve their own and their family's quality of life [14, 15]. The interventions promoting empowerment can be conceptualized as being part of a process that enables the development of the capacity to choose, to make sound decisions and to act according to one's preference . This in turn, according to Dunst and Trivette , increases the person's control over his or her life and is associated with various cognitive attributes, such as intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and self-awareness. According to this perspective, it is possible for a person to learn to be more independent, to adopt healthier lifestyles and to relate better to his or her social environment and network.
Research has shown that professional home health care providers frequently mention the use of interventions promoting self-care when describing their work. Their description of the interventions indicates that their professional expertise is employed within a collaborative relationship [1, 18]. More research is needed to examine how empowerment interventions unfold in real-life practice settings . This is particularly important since the home care sector seems to assume that their programs are empowering [7, 9] although there is little empirical evidence supporting this claim. With the transition of health care services to the community and the ever-increasing emphasis on empowerment, the time seems right for a study observing interventions with clients suffering from chronic health problems who require home care services [4, 5].
In the context of this study and based on prior work by members of the research team, the term enabling interventions refer to professional interventions that promote empowerment. The terms individual empowerment refers to the impact of these interventions on the persons receiving them [1, 2, 4–6, 19, 20].
Empowerment research is first and foremost theoretical in nature and there is very little empirical information on the full extent of the phenomenon. The available data are predominantly from studies examining the process of community empowerment with groups of individuals representing extreme cases of isolation, such as persons with disabilities and persons who are economically underprivileged [21–23]. Empowerment has also been studied in reference to closely related concepts such as compliance, coping and self-care. However, these concepts are limited compared to the more comprehensive approach associated with the phenomenon of empowerment. In fact, these closely related concepts could be part of a larger empowerment construct . Despite these limitations, prior studies have identified many essential attributes of enabling interventions for communities and individuals.
Among authors who have attempted to define the attributes of empowerment interventions, Gibson  states that this type of intervention focuses more on the individual's strengths, rights and capabilities than on his or her shortfalls. This approach implies that people are seen not as powerless victims but as being able to identify solutions for their well-being . In addition, enabling interventions must help people develop their "self-solutions" . Cardone and Gilkerson  and Dunst and Trivette  maintain that considering persons as possessing knowledge rather than as recipients of professional knowledge enhances the use of their own competencies. In a study with families living in extreme poverty, Ouellet et al.  observed certain characteristics that influence enabling interventions, such as follow-up duration and intensity, the availability of the health care professional and intervention flexibility. Zerwekh  states that interventions promoting empowerment require a balance between the care recipient's initiatives and those of the health care professional. Strategies that foster a person's empowering capabilities include: 1) listening to concerns; 2) supporting awareness of alternatives; and 3) broadening possibilities. For their part, Paul et al.  maintain that enabling interventions are founded on the latitude given to a person within the intervention and take into account the individual's experiences and perceptions of his or her reality. In a prior study, five dimensions that comprise enabling interventions were identified. They are interventions that: 1) develop and maintain a therapeutic relationship; 2) are based on a person's point of view and strengths; 3) encourage and support the decision-making process; 4) help to broaden possibilities; and 5) facilitate the learning experience . Some studies show that in order to facilitate empowerment, an egalitarian relationship must be established with the person having difficulties [22, 28, 29], a relationship based on collaboration and that is respectful of the person's experience and ability to seek solutions to his or her problems . The relationship also implies that the person is able to define his or her own needs . To date, very few studies have described the context in which professional interventions unfold with people needing home care services.
Factors associated with empowerment interventions
Interventions that encourage empowerment are influenced by the community health care professionals' perceptions and modes of understanding and their ability to interact with the people involved [17, 21]. According to Labonté , empowerment exists as a conceptual lens through which professional practices can be revaluated. Some factors might restrain the application of enabling interventions by health care professionals and compromise their enabling effect: 1) a vision of the situation focused primarily on problems and the person's deficits ; 2) a misunderstanding of the person's own resources ; 3) a stereotypical attitude towards a person's abilities and limitations influenced by social class and family structure ; 4) a tendency to consider the professional point of view as reliable and to disregard that of the care recipient; 5) different and sometimes opposing views on the definition of power between the help-giver and the help-seeker and on the distribution of power within the intervention [34, 35]; and 6) the professional's experience and feelings of self-efficacy related to the intervention . When examining interactions between professionals and their clients, it is imperative to take into account clients' perceptions of their own abilities, limitations and needs as well as their vision of the interactional process.
Individual empowerment as the outcome of enabling interventions
Individual empowerment reinforces various behaviours and encourages the person to take more control over events and important situations in his or her life . Drolet  mentions that individual empowerment contributes to the development of problem-solving skills and increases self-esteem and self-efficacy. St-Cyr-Tribble et al.  identified several indicators of individual empowerment. These indicators are: 1) awareness of one's life situation, own strengths and needs; 2) increase in self-esteem; 3) decrease in negative feelings; 4) well informed decision-making; 5) learning and developing skills; 6) taking action; 7) developing relationships with the social support environment and network; and 8) improvement in living conditions. These dimensions of empowerment correspond to what Rissel  called psychological or individual empowerment in his community empowerment model. Empowerment is a long-term process of change [37, 38], a dynamic phenomenon comprising a number of steps or phases, but there is no consensus between authors concerning the whole process. Usually the process starts with an awareness phase and ends with an action phase, be it individual or collective in nature . The awareness phase is often generated by a crisis or contextual change [22, 37, 39]. Studies that have explored aspects of individual empowerment rarely did so in the context of home care services. Furthermore, most results are based on representation and not on observations of the intervention process itself. Therefore, there is almost no information concerning indicators associated with the efficacy of these interventions.
Elements associated with the process of individual empowerment
Some authors believe there is a link between personal resources and the individual empowerment process [19, 38]. For example, having good solid values, using available resources, being responsible, possessing internal strength, being able to improve one's self-confidence or desiring a better future are all linked to the empowerment process . The latter two elements have also been noted in research done by St-Cyr Tribble et al. . Living conditions such as poverty and the quality of the social environment, and especially social support, can hinder the individual empowerment process and maintain helplessness [21, 40].
Efficacy of empowerment interventions
A few evaluative studies on the efficacy of enabling interventions have been carried out in the field of family services. These studies mostly used data from interviews with health care professionals and their clients to gather information on the interventions and their outcomes. To our knowledge, only Gibson  has used participant observations to examine the process of individual empowerment in mothers with a child suffering from a chronic disease. Gibson's study did not focus on the intervention process per se. Because the intervention process can be seen as being in constant flux between the clients' individual characteristics and their particular contexts , it is necessary to study empowerment intervention in all its complexity. The enabling intervention should be examined in its natural context and should take into account the client's point of view. It is then possible to determine the indicators of these interventions in terms of their agreement with the literature, on the one hand, and with health care professionals' and clients' perspectives on the other.
Purpose and objectives of the study
The principal aim of the study is to document the empowerment process (empowerment interventions and individual empowerment) of adults receiving home care services and their caregivers. More specifically, the objectives of the study are to: 1) describe the modes of actualization of enabling interventions in the home care setting; 2) describe the individual empowerment process of home care clients; 3) obtain the caregivers' (professionals and lay persons) views on empowerment interventions, the process of individual empowerment and the integration of knowledge; 4) examine the relationship between empowerment interventions and the process of individual empowerment of home care clients; 5) describe the contextual elements facilitating the implementation of empowerment interventions and individual empowerment; and 6) document the transfer and integration of knowledge between the research team, health care professionals, lay persons, caregivers and home care clients of the community health division of the CSSS-IUG of Sherbrooke.
The concept of empowerment is studied from an individual perspective even though the phenomenon comprises a collective component [35, 43]. From an individual perspective, empowerment is a social process whereby the acquisition of skills by the person to satisfy his or her needs, resolve his or her problems and mobilize the necessary resources to take control over his or her life is recognized, supported and valued .
A mixed qualitative design combining a fourth generation evaluation and case studies [44, 45]. The fourth generation evaluation serves as a collaborative approach that encourages dialogue between the actors in the ongoing research. A steering committee composed of investigators, "on-site" co-investigators and administrators has been created and will be responsible for the planning and progress of the study, coordinating communications and maintaining interactions with the practice setting as well as integrating the research findings. An on-site follow-up committee composed of health care professionals will help define contact modalities with clients, and contribute to the validation of research evaluation tools, revision of the analyzed data and development of clinical tools. The case study approach will contribute to the understanding of how enabling interventions influence the individual empowerment process for clients and their caregivers receiving home care services.
Inclusion criteria for health care professionals
Inclusion criteria for home care services clients
Inclusion criteria for caregivers
▪ Working in community home care services
▪ Have held a position or assigned to a replacement as a nurse, psychosocial professional, respiratory care therapist for the last 6 months
▪ Aged between 18 and 64
▪ Residing in the Eastern Townships
▪ Receiving services at home or in a nursing home for a chronic disease
▪ Receiving five home visits during the study period
▪ Not being in terminal phase
▪ Understanding French and having sufficient cognitive resources to participate in an interview
▪ Accepting to the presence of an observer, allowing the interaction with a professional to be audio taped
▪ Residing in the Eastern Townships
▪ Understanding French and have sufficient cognitive resources to participate in an interview
▪ Agreeing to the presence of observer, allowing the interaction with the professional to be audio taped
Data collection methods for the study variables
Data collection method
Knowledge transfer and exchanges
Nine tools will be used to collect data
Categories of empowerment practices (attitudes and interventions)
1. Contributing to the therapeutic relationship
▪ Listens actively
▪ Shows interest
▪ Acts with compassion, warmth, honesty, respect and empathy
▪ Uses appropriate, easy to understand and vivid language, uses humour when needed
2. Building on the person's point of view and strengths
▪ Encourages the expression of expectations, needs, hopes, questions, objectives, difficulties...
▪ Encourages the identification of own strengths, prior solutions used
▪ Gives the person sufficient time to express himself or herself
▪ Identifies and values the person's strengths (expertise, solutions, results obtained, etc.)
▪ Expresses his or her availability and maintains continuity of care
3. Encouraging and supporting the decision-making process
▪ Invites the person to decide which needs or problems will be the focus of the intervention, the objectives to be pursued, whether or not to accept the help offered and the solutions and resources proposed
▪ Provides the necessary information for decision-making, accepts the decision taken and adapts the intervention when needed
▪ Adjusts to each person's rhythm
4. Helping to broaden the person's possibilities
▪ Invites the person to question himself or herself
▪ Facilitates access to diverse resources
5. Facilitating the learning experience
▪ Facilitates attempts to try new ways of doing things or change attitudes
▪ Teaches by using real situations and examples
Indicators associated with the individual empowerment process
▪ Reflection and awareness of one's own situation, strengths and needs
▪ Development of self-esteem
▪ Decrease in negative emotions such as stress, anxiety and sorrow
▪ Enlightened decision-making consistent with expectations and needs
▪ Learning and developing communication, social and other skills
▪ Taking action by trying new ways of doing things
▪ Developing relationships with one's support network and community resources
▪ Improving their life conditions
The observational data (including the field notes and the audiotape transcripts of interactions during the home care visit) and the interview data (individual interviews and focus groups) will be analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach based on the work of Miles and Huberman . An analysis framework developed previously by St-Cyr Tibble et al.  will be adapted and enhanced to conform to the present research objectives by the research team and the members of different committees. Also, discussions with members of the committees will serve as a means to validate the results of the analysis from a clinical and scientific standpoint. NVivo software will be used to manage the qualitative data. The research team will perform the initial coding of the data. Subsequently, 30% of the transcript material will be reviewed by experts recruited from members of the follow-up committee to confirm the results of the categorization. A descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic data will be done to obtain profiles of the clients, caregivers and health professionals. These results, combined with those of the other analyses, will enhance our understanding of different factors potentially having an impact on the empowerment process (enabling interventions, individual empowerment and knowledge transfer).
The conceptualization of empowerment in the current study is based on a review of the literature [24, 28, 30, 35, 52, 53], and on the results of several empowerment studies conducted with parents of young children, women facing premature labour, adults suffering from chronic diseases, and with health care professionals working with these clienteles [1, 2, 4, 5, 19]. It is therefore conceptualized that empowerment interventions contributing to individual empowerment consist of five categories of practices (see Table 3). Table 4 outlines the indicators of individual empowerment for clients and their caregivers.
Research procedure and timeline
The study will proceed in four stages.
1. Preparatory procedures for data collection (June 2006 – October 2006)
▪ Contact home care sector administrators and staff to discuss the project and take their views into account
▪ Create management and follow-up committees
▪ Develop research tools based on empirical results from previous studies
2. Sampling procedures and data collection (September 2006 – October 2008)
▪ Selection of a sample of health care professionals, home care services clients, caregivers
▪ Observation of home care visit for each of the selected cases
▪ Semi-structured interviews with all participants
▪ Focus group with the home health care professionals to gather additional information
▪ Discussions with the follow-up committee
3. Data analysis (concomitant with data collection) (March 2007 – December 2008)
▪ Transcription of the interviews
▪ Content analysis
▪ Discussions with the follow-up committee, the professionals and the co-investigators
▪ Writing the first version of the research report
▪ Presentation of the preliminary results
4. Publication, knowledge transfer and exchanges (December 2008 – December 2009)
▪ Creation of a scientific committee comprising co-investigators and health care professionals to organize symposiums
▪ Organization of two workshops for knowledge transfer and exchanges (by the scientific committee in collaboration with the follow-up committee) for CSSS health care workers
▪ Organization of two symposiums on the empowerment process and the results of the study pertaining to the intervention, the family and caregivers
▪ Writing the final version of the report
▪ Dissemination of the results.
Strategies for knowledge translation and exchanges
To our knowledge, very few studies have explored knowledge transfer as a phenomenon linked to the two important dimensions of empowerment, enabling interventions and individual empowerment. This is surprising considering, on the one hand, that enabling interventions are comprised of actions aimed at enhancing learning and personal growth and, on the other, that manifestations of individual empowerment integrate different forms of knowledge (knowing, know-how, ways of being, including the development of social competencies) and action-taking. It is therefore important for health care professionals to be able to transfer their knowledge effectively to home care recipients in order to support their self-care capabilities and enhance their individual empowerment.
The study design already includes an ongoing knowledge translation and exchanges (KTE) component. Different KTE activities are planned targeting internal and external audiences (scientific breaks and lunches in the workplace, research days, regional, provincial and international symposiums). Articles will be published in professional and scientific journals during and after the research project. Results will be on different Websites. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research  state that: "Partnerships are at the heart of all KT activity. Effective KT is underpinned by effective exchanges between researchers and users – exchanges premised on meaningful interaction with intent to appropriate use of the latest and most relevant research in decision-making." It is therefore essential that health care professionals and clients are encouraged to acquire and use new knowledge and that health care institutions support this by creating means for KTE activities that are fuelled by the latest research findings on the process of individual empowerment. An ad hoc KTE committee involving practitioners, researchers and decision makers will be in charge of identifying and organizing these activities.
This study has been approved by the Ethics Committees for Research of the CSSS-IUGS and the Eastern Townships institutions that provide services to the community (2006–11). The presence of an observer during the home care visit could represent a source of discomfort for participants. Measures will be taken to protect the integrity and privacy of the clients, health care professionals and caregivers. All the participants: professionals, clients and caregivers will be signing an informed consent prior to their enrolment in the study.
With the ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network, there is a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients with chronic health problems who receive home care services . This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The dynamic nature of the intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment. Many health care professionals are taught to act as experts with clients. Promoting self-care initiatives by relying on a person's strengths and supporting his or her progress towards this goal is not a simple task. Studies like this one are needed to understand the processes involved. The use of a reflective approach to study enabling interventions and individual empowerment is therefore an innovative aspect of this research. It should provide cues on how to better support health care professionals in their efforts to adapt and transform their practices so they can guide their clients towards greater autonomy. Another innovative aspect of this study is the use of direct observations of real-life home care visits. This should refine and reinforce our evolving model of empowerment interventions, which is mostly derived from interview data.
This study is supported by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research [CIHR:PHE159477]. The authors would also like to thank Mrs Anne-Marie Royer for her help in the preparation of this study protocol.
- Paul D, Lambert C, St-Cyr Tribble D, Lebel P: L'intervention infirmière dans une perspective d'habilitation aux compétences parentales lors de la visite postnatale. 1995, Sherbrooke: École des sciences infirmièresGoogle Scholar
- St-Cyr Tribble D, Gallagher F, Paul D, Archambault J: Les pratiques d'empowerment en première ligne: compréhension et évaluation de l'efficacité des interventions infirmières et psychosociales conduites auprès des parents. 2003, Sherbrooke: CSSS-IUGSGoogle Scholar
- Gallagher F, St-Cyr Tribble D: Portraits de femmes aux prises avec des signes précurseurs d'un travail prématuré. 16e Conférence nationale de l'Association des infirmières en santé des femmes, en obstétrique et en gynécologie, chapitre canadien. 2005, Montréal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Godbout P: Habilitation à l'auto-prise en charge de sa santé, représentations des infirmières des soins à domicile. PhD thesis. 2007, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santéGoogle Scholar
- Godbout P, St-Cyr Tribble D: L'habilitation à l'auto prise en charge: représentations et interventions des infirmières du secteur des soins à domicile. Colloque sur l'empowerment, le pouvoir d'agir:. 2005, Orford, QuébecGoogle Scholar
- St-Cyr Tribble D, Archambault D, Blanchard R, Doré C, Lacharité C, Marchand C, Mercier K, Morin P, Peçanha D: Évaluation systémique du fonctionnement familial en intervention de première ligne. 2005, Sherbrooke: Direction de la santé publiqueGoogle Scholar
- Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux: Les services à domicile de première ligne. Cadre de référence. Québec. 1994Google Scholar
- Romanow RJ: Building on Values: The Future of Health Care in Canada. Final Report of the Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada. National Library of Canada. Cat. No. CP32-85/2002E-IN. 2002Google Scholar
- Association des CLSC-CHSLD: La vision des CLSC, des Centres de santé et des CHSLD des services de soutien à domicile. 2000, MontréalGoogle Scholar
- Agence de développement de réseaux locaux de services de santé et de services sociaux de l'Estrie (ADRLSSSS): Données de surveillance pour le suivi des plans d'action locaux de santé publique 2004–2007, Adultes. Sherbrooke. 2004Google Scholar
- Régie régionale de la santé et des services sociaux de l'Estrie: Plan d'action régional de santé publique de l'Estrie 2004–2007. 2003, Sherbrooke: Direction de la santé publique et de l'évaluationGoogle Scholar
- Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec: Le portrait de santé. Le Québec et ses régions. 2001, Sainte-Foy: Les publications du QuébecGoogle Scholar
- Federal, Provincial and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health:. Statistical Report on the Health of Canadians. 1999, Santé CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Levasseur M, St-Cyr Tribble D, Desrosiers J: Analyse du concept qualité de vie dans le contexte des personnes âgées avec incapacités physiques. Revue canadienne d'ergothérapie. 2006, 73 (3): 153-167.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anctil H: Soutien à domicile: lever les obstacles au développement. Gérontophile. 2001, 23 (1): 23-26.Google Scholar
- Ninacs WA: Le service social et la pauvreté: de la redistribution des ressources à leur contrôle?. 1996, Série Essais et synthèses, Laboratoire de recherche, École de service social, Université LavalGoogle Scholar
- Dunst CJ, Trivette CM: Empowerment, effective helpgiving practices and family-centered care. Pediatric Nursing. 1996, 22 (4): 334-337. 343PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanasse A, Gallagher F, St-Cyr Tribble D, Archambault J, Doré C, Laprise R, Bernier C, Fortin M: Modèle de collaboration infirmière médecin et promotion de l'autosoin en 1re ligne dans la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de maladies chroniques. Journées annuelles de santé publique, Québec;. 2003Google Scholar
- Gallagher F: Expérience des femmes associée à la présence de signes ou de malaises précurseurs d'un travail prématuré vue sous un angle ethnographique. PhD thesis. 2004, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santéGoogle Scholar
- St-Cyr Tribble D, Gallagher F: Principes à la base de l'empowerment comme mode d'intervention auprès des familles ayant de jeunes enfants. Opening conference, AWHONN International, Montréal. 2005Google Scholar
- Lord J, Hutchison P: The process of empowerment: implications for theory and practice. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health. 1993, 12 (1): 5-22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ouellet F, René J-F, Durand D, Dufour R, Garon S: Intervention en soutien d'empowerment. Dans Naître égaux – Grandir en santé. Nouvelles pratiques sociales. 2000, 13 (1): 85-102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerman MA, Rappaport J: Citizen participation, perceived control and psychological empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1988, 15 (2): 725-750. 10.1007/BF00930023.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gibson CH: A study of empowerment in mothers of chronically ill children. PhD thesis, Boston College. 1993Google Scholar
- Pinderhughes EB: Empowerment for our clients and for ourselves. Social Casework. 1983, 64: 331-338.Google Scholar
- Ausloos G: La compétence des familles. 1995, Toulouse: Érès, 2eGoogle Scholar
- Cardone IA, Gilkerson L: Family administered neonatal activities: an exploratory method for the integration of parental perceptions and newborn behavior. Infant Mental Journal. 1990, 11 (2): 127-141. 10.1002/1097-0355(199022)11:2<127::AID-IMHJ2280110205>3.0.CO;2-A.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zerwekh JV: Laying the groundwork for family self-help: locating families, building trust, and building strength. Public Health Nursing. 1992, 9 (1): 15-21. 10.1111/j.1525-1446.1992.tb00067.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunst CJ, Trivette CM: What is effective helping?. Supporting strengthening families. Methods, strategies and practices. Edited by: Dunst CJ, Trivette CM, Deal AG. 1994, Cambridge: MA Brookline Books, 1: 162-170.Google Scholar
- Dunst C, Trivette C, Deal A: Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. 1988, Cambridge: MA Brookline BooksGoogle Scholar
- Labonte R: Health Promotion and empowerment: reflection on professional practice. Health Education Quarterly. 1994, 21: 253-268.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finch J: Family obligation and social change. 1989, New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
- Ford-Gilboe M, Campbell J: The mother-headed, single-parent family: a feminist critique of the nursing literature. Nursing Outlook. 1996, 44: 173-183. 10.1016/S0029-6554(96)80038-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gibson CH: A concept analysis of empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1991, 16: 354-361. 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1991.tb01660.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rissel C: Empowerment: the holy grail of health promotion?. Health Promotion International. 1994, 9 (1): 39-47. 10.1093/heapro/9.1.39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Drolet M: L'empowerment et intervention familiale: concept paradoxal occultant parfois la pauvreté. Reflets. 1997, 3 (1): 55-79.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lord J: Lives in transition. The process of personnal empowerment. 1991, Kitchener, ONT: Center for Research & Education in Human ServicesGoogle Scholar
- Lebossé YD, Lavallée M: Empowerment et psychologie communautaire. Aperçu historique et perspective d'avenir. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie sociale. 1993, 18: 7-20.Google Scholar
- Kieffer CH: Citizen empowerment: A developmental perspective. Prev Hum Serv. 1984, 3 (2–3): 9-36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fawcett SB, Paine-Andrews A, Francisco VT: Using community empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1995, 23 (5): 677-697. 10.1007/BF02506987.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gibson CH: The process of empowerment in mothers of chronically ill children. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1995, 21: 1201-1210. 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.21061201.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bell J, Wright L: L'avenir de la recherche en sciences infirmières. La santé et la famille: une approche systémique en soins infirmiers. Edited by: Duhamel F. 1995, Boucherville: Gaëtan Morin, 87-99.Google Scholar
- Jutras S, Hannigan D, Carignan P: L'appropriation de la santé mentale par les enfants. 1994, Montréal: LAREHSGoogle Scholar
- Patton MQ: Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. 2002, Thousand Oaks: SageGoogle Scholar
- Stake R: The art of case study research. 1995, Thousand Oaks, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
- Yin RK: Case study research. Design and methods. 1994, Thousand Oaks: SageGoogle Scholar
- Guberman N, Keefe J, Fancey P, Namiash N, Barylak L: Screening and assessment tools for informal caregivers: Identifying services to meet the needs of the potential clients. Rehabilitation and Community Care Management. 2001, 24-26. SpringGoogle Scholar
- Boutin G: L'entretien de recherche qualitatif. 1997, Sainte-Foy: Presses de l'Université du QuébecGoogle Scholar
- Miles MB, Huberman AM: Analyse des données qualitatives. (Trad. par M. H. Rispal). 2003, Bruxelles: de Boeck, 2Google Scholar
- Minghella S, Benson A: Developing reflective practice in mental health nursing through critical incident analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1995, 21 (2): 205-213. 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1995.tb02516.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Institut de la statistique du Québec: Enquête sociale et de santé 1998. 1998, Sainte-Foy: Publications du Québec, 2Google Scholar
- Rappaport J: Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1987, 15 (2): 121-144. 10.1007/BF00919275.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wallerstein N: "What is the evidence on effectiveness of empowerment to improve health?". Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Health Evidence Network report. Retrieved November 2006, [http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E88086.pdf]
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research: Knowledge translation strategy 2004–2009: Innovation in action. Ottawa. 2004Google Scholar
- St-Cyr Tribble D, Gallagher F, Vanasse A: Discussion de cas entre infirmière et médecin dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chronique. Troisième Congrès mondial du Secrétariat international des infirmières et infirmiers de l'espace francophone (SIDDIIEF), le Dialogue au cœur du soin: Québec. 2006Google Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/8/177/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.