You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Cost modeling approaches for prediction of pharmaceutical expenditure.

From: Variability in prescription drug expenditures explained by adjusted clinical groups (ACG) case-mix: A cross-sectional study of patient electronic records in primary care

  Total population Two-part model
     Expenditure incurrence Level of expenditure
  Linear mixed models Logistic regression Linear mixed models
Adult population        
Fixed effects V SE %V %EV V SE %EV
Age*    1.4% 0.6% 10.5%   10.5%
Random factors        
ACG 5.01 0.89 44.7% 28.8% 2.78 0.49 35.4%
Physician (center) 0.27 0.06 2.4% 1.5% 0.14 0.03 1.8%
Residual 5.77 0.04 51.5% 69.1% 4.11 0.03 52.3%
Total 11.21   100% 100% 7.85   100%
Pediatric population        
Fixed effects V SE %V %EV V SE %EV
Age*    0.1% 0.4%    0.0%
Random factors        
ACG 1.22 0.28 22.2% 20.6% 0.66 0.17 22.4%
Physician (center) 1.62 0.69 29.5% 38.8% 0.32 0.14 10.9%
Residual 2.66 0.04 48.3% 40.2% 1.98 0.04 66.7%
Total 5.51   100% 100% 2.96   100%
  1. Statistical tests applied to the total population and two-part model. Linear mixed models include: estimation of variance (V), standard error (SE) and percentage of explained variance (%EV).
  2. * Age fixed effects include linear and quadratic terms.