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Table 5 Emergency department utilisation characteristics

From: Doctor's perception of doctor-patient relationships in emergency departments: What roles do gender and ethnicity play?

  Internal Medicine Gynaecology
  GW (n = 856) TW (n = 698) GM (n = 273) TM (n = 282) p1) GW (n = 195) TW (n = 125) p1)
Time since onset of complaints      n.s.    n.s.
   Mean (hours) 84 121 157 123   78 119  
   Standard deviation 193 378 1041 490   186 390  
Transportation (%)      ***    n.s.
   Private 49.9 81.0 51.6 74.1   88.2 92.8  
   General ambulance service 15.5 4.0 10.6 6.4   3.1 1.6  
   Mobile intensive care unit 29.2 12.8 34.1 15.6   5.6 2.4  
   Emergency ambulance 5.0 1.5 2.4 3.9   0 0  
   Police 0.1 0 1.3 0   0 0  
Time of presentation (%)         
   Time of day (%)      ***    n.s.
8 am – 8 pm 70.6 56.0 68.8 49.3   73.3 62.4  
8 pm – 8 am 29.1 43.6 31.2 50.7   26.7 37.6  
   Day of week (%)      ***    n.s.
Weekday 66.2 53.8 69.1 55.3   58.5 56.0  
Weekend 33.8 46.2 30.9 44.7   41.5 44.0  
Need for emergency treatment as perceived by physician      ***    n.s.
   Mean 6 5 6 5   5 5  
   Standard deviation 3 2 3 3   4 3  
Need for admission (%)      ***    n.s.
   Yes 37.9 14.3 42.1 23.0   17.9 12.8  
Medication given or prescribed      ***    n.s.
   Yes 47,3 54,8 42,1 50,2   43,4 44,9  
Need for translation (%)      ***    ***
   Yes 0.5 36.3 0 34.6   1.1 36.3  
Interpreter2) (%)      ***    ***
   Accompanying relative/friend 0.4 32.6 0 24.8   1.0 33.6  
   Nurse 0.1 0.7 0 0   0 0  
   Physician 0 0.4 0 0.4   0 2.4  
   Other hospital personnel 0 0.7 0 0.4   0 0  
Length of medical history (number of words)      n.s.    n.s.
   Mean 13 12 12 11   12 14  
   Standard deviation 9 7 8 7   8 8  
  1. GW = German women, GM= German men, TW = Turkish women, TM = Turkish men; 1)Kruskal-Wallis test; ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001; 2)Differences in percentages results from missing values.