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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for selected variables, 1997–2002 (N = 373)

From: Incorporating health care quality into health antitrust law

Variable Mean (st. deviation) Minimum Maximum
Outcome measures
Observed Mortality 3.15 (1.60) 0 12.1
Expected Mortality 2.93 (1.03) 0 6.89
Excess mortality 0.213 (1.37) -3.63 6.84
Market characteristics
Market HHI 0.0554 (0.185) 0.0143 0.169
CABG HHI 0.290 (0.225) 0.057 1
HMO penetration 0.512 (0.116) 0.043 0.724
Ownership status
County 0.535% (07.30)   
District 7.23% (25.9)   
Non-profit 81.3% (39.1)   
Investor-owned 11.0% (31.3)   
Hospital characteristics
Teaching 16.9% (37.5)   
System affiliation 56.0% (49.7)   
CABG volume 236.64 (197.40) 15 1531
Staffed beds 315.1 (153.63) 0 875
Per capita income 32.53 (9.21) 17.51 69.35
% Medicare 30.20 (16.76) 0 84.86
% Medi-Cal 12.71 (10.69) 0 59.31
Time variables
1997 13.7% (34.4)   
1998 19.8% (39.9)   
1999 17.4% (38.0)   
2000 16.6% (37.3)   
2001 16.6% (37.3)   
2002 15.8% (36.5)