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Table 3 Excess mortality-multivariate regression results, 1997–2002

From: Incorporating health care quality into health antitrust law

Variable Hospital Market CABG Market
  Estimate (st. error) Estimate (st. error)
HHI 26.04*** (9.01) 3.07** (1.22)
HMO penetration 0.578 (0.706) 0.958 (0.752)
Non-profit 0.554 (0.477) 0.265 (0.373)
County -0.757 (1.11) -0.813 (1.07)
District -0.120 (0.888) -0.340 (0.582)
System 0.116 (0.156) 0.062 (0.152)
Teaching 0.409* (0.247) 0.390 (0.242)
Staffed beds -0.00104* (0.000617) -0.00107* (0.000607)
CABG Volume -0.00133*** (0.000354) -0.00146*** (0.000357)
Per capita income 0.0130 (0.00959) 0.00855 (0.00879)
% Medicare -0.0207** (0.00929) -0.0220** (0.00898)
% Medi-Cal 0.0310** (0.0121) 0.0267** (0.0107)
Non-profit*HHI -68.98*** (19.46) -3.78*** (0.973)
District*HHI -25.55** (12.59) -2.58** (1.24)
% Medicare*HHI 0.0916 (0.132) 0.0113 (0.0222)
% Medi-Cal*HHI -0.539** (0.250) -0.0702* (0.0385)
1997 0.107 (0.267) -0.00284 (0.263)
1998 -0.113 (0.243) -0.219 (0.241)
1999 -0.200 (0.247) -0.248 (0.245)
2000 0.0874 (0.237) 0.0527 (0.237)
2001 -0.510 (0.395) -0.601 (0.393)
Constant 0.0750 (0.806) 0.874 (0.716)
R-squared F 0.180 3.64*** 0.189 3.88***
  1. Note: *P < 0.10, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01, Heteroskedasticity corrected standard errors are in parentheses.