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Table 4 Excess mortality-fixed effects regression results, 1997–2002

From: Incorporating health care quality into health antitrust law

Variable Hospital Market CABG Market
  Estimate (st. error) Estimate (st. error)
HHI 31.53** (15.51) 5.00*** (1.77)
HMO penetration -3.00 (2.04) -0.981 (2.27)
Non-profit -5.20* (2.65) 0.418 (0.851)
District -5.60* (2.95) 2.48 (1.53)
System -0.185 (0.309) -0.0167 (0.303)
Teaching 3.66*** (1.15) 0.244 (0.258)
Staffed beds -0.000849 (0.00161) -0.000609 (0.00154)
CABG Volume -0.000399 (0.00091) -0.0000602 (0.000900)
Income per capita 0.0133 (0.0251) -0.0292 (0.0262)
% Medicare -0.0137 (0.0116) -0.0232** (0.00943)
% Medi-Cal 0.00470 (0.0204) 0.0299*** (0.0111)
Non-profit*HHI -69.86*** (21.01) -4.33*** (1.04)
District*HHI -35.13** (17.34) -8.18*** (2.90)
% Medicare*HHI 0.139 (0.138) 0.0125 (0.0249)
% Medi-Cal*HHI -0.568** (0.283) -0.0786* (0.0438)
1997 0.287 (0.311) -0.202 (0.280)
1998 0.125 (0.347) -0.322 (0.249)
1999 -0.00694 (0.231) -0.351 (0.253)
2000 0.0846 (0.189 0.030 (0.235)
2001 -0.466 (0.462) -0.521 (0.414)
Constant 3.80 (2.70) 3.10** (1.42)
R-squared F 0.127 2.96*** 0.127 3.19***
  1. Note: *P < 0.10, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01, Heteroskedasticity corrected standard errors are in parentheses.