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Table 3 Overview of countries, dominant model for out-of-hours care, and planned changes

From: Out-of-hours care in western countries: assessment of different organizational models

Country Respondents (N) Models (N) Dominant model* Planned changes
Croatia 1 3 Emergency department -
Czech Republic 2 3 Primary care integrated in hospital Upscale care, patient fee, integrate GP coop and A&E department
Denmark 1 4 Telephone triage and advice service Upscale care
Israel 1 4 Emergency department -
Portugal 1 4 Primary care center -
The Netherlands 2 4 GP cooperative Upscale care, integrate CP coop and A&E department
Germany 1 5 Rota group -
Iceland 2 5 Primary care center GP cooperative -
Slovenia 6 6 Rota group Change organization, upscale care
Spain 1 6 Telephone triage and advice service Upscale care
Austria 3 7 Rota group Upscale care, change structure
Greece 5 7 Individual general family practice Upscale care, change organization
Poland 3 7 - Change organization
France 3 8 Emergency department Rota group Upscale care
Sweden 5 8 GP cooperative Centralization of out-of-hours calls and triage, change organization
Switzerland 4 8 Rota group Upscale care, call center service
Belgium 7 9 Rota group Upscale care, centralization of out-of-hours calls and triage
Canada 2 9 Emergency department Upscale care
Italy 4 9 Other (Guardia Medica) Upscale care
New Zealand 2 9 GP cooperative Rota group -
Australia 2 10 Individual general family practice GP cooperative Improve access to high quality health care services
Ireland 1 10 GP cooperative Upscale care
Norway 6 10 Rota group Upscale care, enhance uniformity
United Kingdom 4 10 Deputizing service -
United States of America 2 10 Rota group Many different approaches
  1. *Dominant model is the model mentioned by the majority of respondents from one country (> 50%).