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Table 1 Unadjusted Baseline and Follow-Up Means or Percentages among the ACTIVE Participants (Weighted N = 1,804) in the Analytic Sample, by Treatment Group.

From: The ACTIVE cognitive training trial and predicted medical expenditures

Variable Memory Group (N = 444) Reasoning Group (N = 447) Speed of Processing Group (N = 452) Control Group (N = 462) Total
Baseline      
Age (years) 75.8 76.0 75.2 75.9 75.7
Men (%) 24.8 26.3 24.8 25.3 25.3
Black (%) 29.1 30.4 33.4 32.3 31.4
Education (years) 13.5 13.3 13.5 13.4 13.4
MMSE (score) 27.2 27.1 27.2 27.2 27.2
ADL Count* 0.42 0.31 0.26 0.31 0.32
IADL Count 4.16 4.26 4.11 4.16 4.17
EPT Score 18.67 17.98 18.35 18.31 18.33
Medical Cond. Count 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3
PCS Score 42.68 41.16 42.93 42.31 42.27
MCS Score* 54.26 52.71 53.22 54.38 53.65
Predicted Annual Medical Expenditures 6,469 7,163 6,576 6,756 6,741
Changes in SF-36 Composite Scores      
PCS (baseline to 1 year) -.556 -.452 -.129 -.450 -.399
MCS (baseline to 1 year) -.408 -.033 .982 .314 .208
PCS (3 to 5 years)** -.313 .221 -.680 .168 -.151
MCS (3 to 5 years)** .224 -.648 .701 -1.198 -.231
Predicted Annual Medical Expenditure Changes      
Baseline to 1 year* 146.65 199.31 -130.59 91.96 78.34
3 to 5 years 229.12 234.90 73.99 202.00 184.76
  1. Notes: The analytic sample was restricted to ACTIVE participants successfully re-interviewed at the fifth annual follow-up, with propensity score weighting used to adjust for potential attrition bias, in order to avoid compositional incomparability to our prior report [19]. MMSE = mini-mental status exam; ADL = activities of daily living; IADL = instrumental ADLs; EPT = everyday performance test; and, PCS = physical component score; MCS = mental component score.
  2. * = p < .05; ** = p < .01