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Table 2 Characteristics of counties, by CHCs/RHCs in the county, studied states, 2002.

From: Association between community health center and rural health clinic presence and county-level hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: an analysis across eight US states

  Counties in studied states only, with: All U.S. Counties
SID Sample, n = 579 CHC Only   RHC Only Both CHC and RHC   Neither facility  
Number of Counties: 59   139 27   354 3,168
Resources in county:        
   MD/DO per 10,000 population 12.9   10.3 14.3   12.3 12.1
   Beds per 10,000 population 3.6   3.2 3.9   3.2 3.9
   Number of hospitals with emergency department 1.7   1.0 1.4   1.6 1.3
   HMO penetration rate 25.3 *** 9.4 10.6   14.2 11.4
   ED visits per 1,000 population 337   372 382   330 351
   Non-metropolitan county (%) 23.7 *** 79.9 66.7 *** 58.8 65.3
Characteristics of county population:        
   Percent of population that is:        
African American 20.3   17.5 16.2   16.4 9.5
Hispanic white 6.4   6.6 7.7   6.4 5.3
Asian 1.7   1.6 3.5   2.1 1.0
American Indian/Native American 2.1   5.1 2.1   2.3 1.9
   Population change, 1990 – 2000 (%) 10.4   12.5 8.5   13.0 8.1
   Percent of population with less than a high school education 24.9   24.3 24.0   25.0 22.6
   Population per square mile 167   141 183   219 23
   Percent of population that is unemployed 7.3   6.8 6.3   7.0 7.1
   Percent uninsured, aged 18–64 19.0   20.8 22.1 ** 18.9 19.6
   Percent uninsured, age 17 or less 12.0   12.9 13.3 * 11.4 12.4
   Median household income 35,595   35,179 36,835   35,844 35,363
Death rate per 10,000 due to:        
   Cardiovascular disease 18.3   15.6 17.1   17.0 20.7
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 5.1   4.6 5.1   4.7 5.1
   Diabetes 2.6   2.2   2.2 2.2 2.8
   Liver disease 1.0   0.9   0.9 0.9 0.9
  1. Data Source: Authors' analysis using year 2002 State Inpatient Databases (8 states), and the 2002 Area Resource File (ARF). Note that ARF death rates are based on 3-year average. Statistical tests compare the indicated category to counties that have neither facility type; statistical tests are t-tests, except for the chi-square test for non-metropolitan counties (conducted as a single chi-square for all CHC/RHC combinations). Note: 3168 is the number of US counties in states. Excludes ARF counties from U.S. Territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, etc.).
  2. ***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05