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Table 4 Results of multilevel analyses: estimated mean and standard error per quality aspect and chi-squares indicating the change over years for all health plans

From: Dutch healthcare reform: did it result in performance improvement of health plans? A comparison of consumer experiences over time

Quality aspect M SE Time effects
    Linear Quadratic
General rating of health plan    10.68** 33.67***
2005 7.53 0.06   
2006 7.66 0.05   
2007 7.75 0.05   
2008 7.66 0.05   
Conduct of employees    19.62*** 0.19
2005 3.50 0.02   
2006 3.52 0.02   
2007 3.57 0.02   
2008 3.58 0.02   
Health plan information    15.56*** 12.37***
2005 2.63 0.02   
2006 2.70 0.01   
2007 2.72 0.02   
2008 2.71 0.02   
Access to call centre    10.59** 20.81***
2005 2.56 0.04   
2006 2.36 0.04   
2007 2.59 0.03   
2008 2.60 0.03   
Getting the needed help from call centre    0.98 5.04*
2005 3.40 0.03   
2006 3.28 0.03   
2007 3.41 0.03   
2008 3.38 0.04   
Reimbursement of claims    1.27 4.50*
2005 3.67 0.02   
2006 3.60 0.03   
2007 3.68 0.02   
2008 3.67 0.02   
Transparency of (co)payment requirements    7.35** 6.33*
2005 2.68 0.03   
2006 2.68 0.04   
2007 2.67 0.04   
2008 2.79 0.04   
  1. Note. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001.