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Table 3 Predictors of hospital admission among patients presenting to ED with hypertension as the primary diagnosis

From: Emergency Department and Inpatient Healthcare utilization due to Hypertension

  Univariate Multivariable-adjusted
  Odds ratioa (95 % CI) Odds ratioa (95 % CI)
Age
 <50 Ref Ref
 50- <65 1.33 (1.28, 1.38)*** 0.90 (0.86, 0.94)***
 65- <80 1.60 (1.52, 1.68)*** 0.74 (0.69, 0.79)***
 ≥80 2.26 (2.12, 2.40)*** 0.91 (0.83, 0.98)*
Gender
 Female Ref Ref
 Male 1.19 (1.15, 1.23)*** 0.93 (0.89, 0.97)**
Median household income
 1st quartile (< $38,999) Ref Ref
 2nd quartile ($39,000 to $47,999) 0.95 (0.88, 1.02) 0.96 (0.88, 1.04)
 3rd quartile ($48,000 to $62999) 1.00 (0.91, 1.10) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06)
 4th quartile ($63,000 or more) 1.11 (1.00, 1.25) 0.95 (0.84, 1.09)
Primary payer
 Medicare (ref) Ref Ref
 Medicaid 0.79 (0.74, 0.85)*** 1.14 (1.02, 1.27)
 Private insurance 0.45 (0.43, 0.47)*** 0.99 (0.92, 1.07)
 Self-pay/No charge 0.36 (0.33, 0.40)*** 0.96 (0.87, 1.06)
 Other 0.56 (0.47, 0.66)*** 1.21 (1.01, 1.44)*
Patient location (residence)
 Micropolitan/not metro Ref Ref
 Metro (large or small) 1.84 (1.65, 2.04)*** 1.68 (1.50, 1.90)***
Hospital Region
 Northeast Ref Ref
 Midwest 0.75 (0.62, 0.91)* 0.62 (0.51, 0.75)***
 South 0.75 (0.63, 0.88)* 0.67 (0.54, 0.81)***
 West 0.73 (0.61, 0.88)*** 0.51 (0.40, 0.65)***
Teaching status of hospital
 Metropolitan non-teaching or non-metro Ref Ref
 Metropolitan teaching 1.37 (1.22, 1.54)*** 1.04 (0.89, 1.21)
Comorbidities
 CHD (ref: no) 7.27 (6.84, 7.72)*** 2.80 (2.64, 2.97)***
 Hyperlipidemia (ref: no) 4.90 (4.55, 5.26)*** 3.27 (3.03, 3.54)***
 Renal failure (ref: no) 14.08 (12.83, 15.46)*** 7.52 (6.86, 8.25)***
 Heart Failure (ref: no) 22.38 (20.58, 24.34)*** 8.55 (7.86, 9.30)***
 Gout (ref: no) 5.52 (4.96, 6.15)*** 1.86 (1.60, 2.18)***
 Diabetes (ref: no) 3.57 (3.42, 3.73)*** 1.51 (1.44, 1.58)***
 COPD (ref: no) 5.62 (5.24, 6.02)*** 2.09 (1.94, 2.24)***
 Osteoarthritis (ref: no) 5.64 (4.92, 6.45) 3.76 (3.18, 4.44)***
  1. CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. aOdds ratio from the logistic regression
  3. *p-value <0.05; **p-value <0.01; ***p-value <0.001; Significant odds ratios are in bold