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Table 5 Predictors of duration of hospital stay among patients with hypertension who were admitted to the hospital after presenting to ED with hypertension as the primary diagnosis

From: Emergency Department and Inpatient Healthcare utilization due to Hypertension

  Univariate Multivariable-adjusted
  Beta-estimatea (95 % CI) Beta-estimatea (95 % CI)
Age
 <50 Ref Ref
 50- <65 0.49 (0.37, 0.61)*** 0.47 (0.35,0.59)***
 65- <80 1.00 (0.86, 1.15)*** 0.83 (0.66,1.01)***
 ≥80 1.13 (0.97, 1.29)*** 0.89 (0.72,1.05)***
Gender
 Female Ref Ref
 Male 0.17 (0.08, 0.26)** −0.03 (−0.12,0.06)
Median house hold income
 1st quartile (< $38,999) Ref Ref
 2nd quartile ($39,000 to $47,999) 0.06 (−0.09, 0.20) 0.09 (−0.04, 0.22)
 3rd quartile ($48,000 to $62999) 0.07 (−0.10, 0.25) 0.06 (−0.10, 0.23)
 4th quartile ($63,000 or more) 0.27 (0.07, 0.48)** 0.09 (−0.08, 0.27)
Primary payer
 Medicare (ref) Ref Ref
 Medicaid −0.10 (−0.27, 0.08) 0.47 (0.28, 0.66)***
 Private insurance −1.05 (−1.17, −0.93)*** −0.14 (−0.27, 0.00)*
 Self-pay/No charge −1.32 (−1.50, −1.14)*** −0.19 (−0.40, 0.03)
 Other −0.92 (−1.28, −0.56)*** 0.03 (−0.33, 0.39)
Patient location (residence)
 Micropolitan/not metro Ref Ref
 Metro (large or small) 0.36 (0.15, 0.56)** 0.17 (0.02, 0.32)*
Hospital Region
 Northeast Ref Ref
 Midwest −0.85 (−1.17, −0.53)*** −0.88 (−1.16, −0.60)***
 South −0.58 (−0.87, −0.29)** −0.56 (−0.81, −0.31)***
 West −0.58 (−0.89, −0.26)** −0.85 (−1.13, −0.56)***
Teaching status of hospital
 Metropolitan non -teaching or non-metro Ref Ref
 Metropolitan teaching 0.24 (0.05, 0.44)* 0.19 (0.02, 0.35)*
Comorbidities
 CHD (ref: no) 0.54 (0.44, 0.65)*** −0.05 (−0.14, 0.05)
 Hyperlipidemia (ref: no) −0.51 (−0.60, −0.41)*** −0.59 (−0.68, −0.50)***
 Renal failure (ref: no) 2.10 (1.95, 2.25)*** 1.63 (1.48, 1.78)***
 Heart Failure (ref: no) 2.07 (1.94, 2.20)*** 1.53 (1.41, 1.65)***
 Gout (ref: no) −0.48 (−0.66, −0.31)*** 0.13 (−0.05, 0.30)
 Diabetes (ref: no) 0.57 (0.47, 0.67)*** 0.11 (0.02, 0.21)*
 COPD (ref: no) 1.01 (0.87, 1.15)*** 0.29 (0.16, 0.42)***
 Osteoarthritis (ref: no) −0.16 (−0.32, −0.01)* −0.16 (−0.30, −0.02)*
  1. CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. abeta-estimate from linear regression
  3. *p-value <0.05; **p-value <0.01; ***p-value <0.001; Significant estimates are in bold