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Table 6 Predictors of total hospital charges (inpatient + ED charges) among patients with hypertension hospitalized after presenting to ED with hypertension as the primary diagnosis

From: Emergency Department and Inpatient Healthcare utilization due to Hypertension

  Univariate   Multivariable-adjusted  
  B-estimatea (95 % CI) P-value B-estimatea (95 % CI) P-value
Age
 <50 Ref   Ref  
 50- <65 4099.5 (2790.9, 5408.1) <0.0001 3478.3 (2007.5, 4949.1) <0.0001
 65- <80 7602.0 (5920.2, 9283.9) <0.0001 4916.7 (3322.1, 6511.3) <0.0001
 ≥80 5465.2 (3421.7, 7508.6) <0.0001 1419.5 (−346.3, 3185.3) 0.1149
Gender
 Female (ref) Ref   Ref  
 Male 2634.0 (1658.1, 3609.9) <0.0001 273.2 (−603.8, 1150.2) 0.5410
Median household income
 1st quartile (< $38,999) Ref   Ref  
 2nd quartile ($39,000 to $47,999) 2807.9 (573.2, 5042.6) 0.0139 1551.8 (−519.5, 3623.2) 0.1418
 3rd quartile ($48,000 to $62999) 4816.3 (1994.3, 7638.3) 0.0008 2010.2 (−454.3, 4474.7) 0.1097
 4th quartile ($63,000 or more) 8879.6 (4721.0, 13038.2) <0.0001 4122.0 (447.4, 7796.7) 0.0280
Primary payer
 Medicare Ref   Ref  
 Medicaid 109.4 (−2624.6, 2843.44) 0.9374 1633.7 (−1032.0, 4299.4) 0.2293
 Private insurance −5403.9 (−6842.8, −3965.1) <0.0001 −343.7 (−1752.1, 1064.8) 0.6320
 Self-pay/No charge −9279.1 (−11307.1, −7251.05) <0.0001 −2197.7 (−4074.3, −321.0) 0.0218
 Other −5871.1 (−9599.0, −2143.1) 0.0021 −3775.8 (−6842.5, −709.2) 0.0159
Patient residence
 Micropolitan/not metro Ref   Ref  
 Metropolitan (large or small) 10950.6 (8508.3, 13392.9) <0.0001 8651.8 (6361.1, 10942.5) <0.0001
Hospital Region
 Northeast Ref   Ref  
 Midwest −9957.2 (−16070.1, −3844.23) 0.0014 −9936.6 (−15814.5, −4058.8) 0.0010
 South −5883.6 (−11886.2, 119.0) 0.0547 −5384.8 (−11298.4, 528.80) 0.0742
 West 14494.2 (7118.5, 21869.9) 0.0001 11992.9 (5047.4, 18938.3) 0.0007
Teaching status of hospital
 Metropolitan non –teaching or non-metro Ref   Ref  
 Metropolitan teaching −1801.1 (−5304.5, 1702.3) 0.3131 −1094.6 (−4385.9, 2196.7) 0.5140
Comorbidities
 CHD (ref: no) 5309.5 (3931.5, 6687.6) <0.0001 1403.8 (186.8, 2620.8) 0.0238
 Hyperlipidemia (ref: no) −3780.9 (−4842.8, −2719.0) <0.0001 −3947.7 (−4872.1, −3023.3) <0.0001
 Renal failure (ref: no) 15161.4 (13324.7, 16998.1) <0.0001 11217.3 (9614.5, 12820.1) <0.0001
 Heart Failure (ref: no) 16095.3 (14106.3,18084.2) <0.0001 11954.3 (10060.2, 13848.5) <0.0001
 Gout (ref: no) −2037.1 (−3945.0, −129.2) 0.0364 2219.1 (520.7, 3917.6) 0.0105
 Diabetes (ref: no) 3422.1 (2450.1, 4394.2) <0.0001 −661.5 (−1662.0, 338.9) 0.1946
 COPD (ref: no) 7870.4 (5955.5, 9785.3) <0.0001 2955.0 (1137.8, 4772.2) 0.0015
 Osteoarthritis (ref: no) −4400.6 (−6279.1, −2522.1) <0.0001 −2858.6 (−4473.5, −1243.7) 0.0005
  1. CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Significant beta coefficients are in bold
  2. aBeta-estimate from linear regression