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Table 1 Perception of service quality by holding NHIS by socioeconomic status among Ghanaian females

From: Perception of quality of health delivery and health insurance subscription in Ghana

Explanatory variables Perception of service quality by holding NHIS
  Better (%) Same (%) Worse (%) N
Highest educational level (χ2 = 128.66; p < 0.000)  
No education 39.5 36.7 23.8 1,332
Primary 35.3 35.4 29.3 1,219
Secondary 33.1 31.1 35.8 4,265
Higher 19.5 35.7 44.8 487
Wealth index (χ2 = 259.17; p < 0.000)  
Poorest 45.5 33.8 20.7 1,155
Poorer 42.2 33.3 24.5 1,214
Middle 35.5 31.9 32.6 1,496
Richer 29.4 33.1 37.5 1,670
Richest 22.9 33.7 43.4 1,767
Region (χ2 = 722.82; p < 0.000)  
Western 56.0 31.7 12.3 841
Central 38.4 40.7 20.9 636
Greater Accra 18.4 42.6 39.1 1,237
Volta 28.6 31.4 40.0 598
Eastern 48.6 25.0 26.4 713
Ashanti 18.8 27.3 53.9 1,478
Brong-Ahafo 34.1 27.2 38.7 683
Northern 44.4 37.4 18.2 602
Upper East 41.7 41.9 16.3 326
Upper West 47.7 27.7 24.5 185
Type of place of residence (χ2 = 154.54; p < 0.000)  
Urban 26.6 34.0 39.5 3,940
Rural 42.2 32.2 25.7 3,363
Current marital status (χ2 = 12.45; p < 0.014)  
Never in union 34.8 31.9 33.4 2,279
Currently in union/living with a mans 33.6 33.8 32.5 4,314
Formerly in union/living with a man 30.9 33.3 35.8 710
Age (χ2 = 36.35; p < 0.000)  
15–19 38.3 34.9 26.8 1,189
20–24 34.2 30.9 34.8 1,232
25–29 32.3 33.6 34.2 1,298
30–34 29.9 34.8 35.3 1,081
35–39 34.3 33.0 32.7 1,064
40–44 31.7 32.4 36.0 799
45–49 35.4 31.8 32.7 638
Religion (χ2 = 80.88; p < 0.000)  
Orthodox 34.6 32.4 33.0 1,866
Pentecostal 30.3 33.5 36.3 2,920
Other Christian 36.4 28.6 34.9 1,054
Islam 37.6 35.4 27.0 1,181
Traditional/others 38.0 42.3 19.7 281
Ethnicity (χ2 = 183.00; p < 0.000)  
Akan 33.8 31.0 35.2 3,665
Ga/Dangme 32.2 34.8 33.0 495
Ewe 28.0 33.3 38.7 938
Mole-Dagbani 41.6 32.1 26.2 1,160
Gurma 30.1 50.0 19.9 378
Others 31.0 35.7 33.2 620
Occupation (χ2 = 117.76; p < 0.000)     
Not working 38.8 34.6 26.7 1,705
Professional/Managerial 23.9 30.9 45.3 533
Sales/Services 29.7 32.7 37.6 2,830
Agricultural worker 41.6 33.0 25.5 1,325
Skilled/Unskilled 31.5 33.4 35.1 896
  1. Computed from 2014 GDHS