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Table 3 Logistic regression results on perceptions of healthcare quality under NHIS and ownership of health insurance

From: Perception of quality of health delivery and health insurance subscription in Ghana

  Females Males
Explanatory factors Model I 95 % CI Model II 95 % CI Model III 95 % CI Model IV 95 % CI
Perception of NHIS quality
Better 1 [1, 1] 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Same 0.708** [0.574,0.874] 0.699** [0.561,0.871] 0.868 [0.644,1.168] 0.973 [0.724,1.308]
Worse 0.453*** [0.373,0.549] 0.456*** [0.375,0.554] 0.697* [0.515,0.944] 0.781 [0.575,1.062]
Level of education
None    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Primary    1.117 [0.902,1.384]    0.715 [0.476,1.073]
Secondary    1.325** [1.087,1.615]    0.946 [0.664,1.347]
Higher/Tertiary    2.196*** [1.450,3.327]    1.456 [0.795,2.668]
Wealth quintile
Poorest    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Poorer    1.097 [0.831,1.446]    1.506* [1.002,2.262]
Middle    1.181 [0.884,1.578]    1.465 [0.933,2.298]
Richer    1.201 [0.865,1.668]    2.159** [1.289,3.614]
Richest    1.709** [1.183,2.470]    3.047*** [1.661,5.590]
Region
Western    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Central    0.763 [0.521,1.116]    1.871 [0.968,3.617]
Greater Accra    1.272 [0.800,2.023]    2.051 [1.000,4.208]
Volta    1.268 [0.804,1.998]    3.314** [1.601,6.863]
Eastern    1.260 [0.824,1.927]    1.317 [0.713,2.435]
Ashanti    0.470*** [0.317,0.696]    1.168 [0.651,2.097]
Brong-Ahafo    1.681* [1.128,2.506]    1.849* [1.094,3.126]
Northern    2.749*** [1.678,4.502]    2.498* [1.222,5.105]
Upper East    0.973 [0.633,1.496]    7.344*** [3.485,15.48]
Upper West    9.494*** [3.753,24.02]    11.11*** [4.275,28.87]
Type of residence
Urban    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Rural    0.911 [0.718,1.156]    1.106 [0.763,1.603]
Marital status
Never in union    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Currently in union/living with a mans   1.373** [1.125,1.676]    1.389 [0.938,2.057]
Formerly in union/living with a man 0.971 [0.739,1.276]    1.001 [0.565,1.774]
Age cohort
15–19    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
20–24    0.760* [0.608,0.950]    0.708 [0.493,1.016]
25–29    0.968 [0.735,1.274]    0.570* [0.362,0.898]
30–34    1.088 [0.815,1.453]    0.578 [0.326,1.022]
35–39    0.990 [0.730,1.342]    1.127 [0.623,2.037]
40–44    0.922 [0.670,1.268]    0.774 [0.434,1.379]
45–49    1.341 [0.941,1.913]    1.141 [0.593,2.196]
50–54      1.033 [0.547,1.950]
55–59      0.873 [0.424,1.801]
Religion
Orthodox Christian    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Pentecostal    0.888 [0.751,1.051]    1.240 [0.921,1.669]
Other Christian    1.007 [0.787,1.288]    0.634** [0.468,0.860]
Moslem    0.920 [0.706,1.200]    0.952 [0.638,1.419]
Traditional/Others    1.055 [0.716,1.554]    0.563** [0.399,0.794]
Ethnicity
Akan    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Ga/Dangme    1.212 [0.825,1.781]    1.856* [1.043,3.302]
Ewe    1.364 [0.972,1.912]    0.893 [0.533,1.498]
Mole-Dagbani    1.207 [0.900,1.619]    1.465 [0.912,2.354]
Gurma    1.589 [0.996,2.535]    0.581* [0.339,0.997]
Others    1.332* [1.001,1.773]    0.855 [0.513,1.425]
Occupation
Not working    1 [1,1]    1 [1,1]
Professional/Managerial    1.124 [0.800,1.577]    0.813 [0.459,1.442]
Sales/Services    0.996 [0.826,1.201]    0.477** [0.291,0.783]
Agricultural worker    0.788 [0.619,1.004]    0.429*** [0.272,0.676]
Skilled/Unskilled    0.858 [0.673,1.095]    0.452*** [0.289,0.706]
Currently pregnant
No/unsure
Yes    2.593*** [1.942,3.462]     
_Cons 5.905*** [5.001,6.973] 2.717*** [1.667,4.429] 4.928*** [3.867,6.280] 1.604 [0.727,3.539]
AIC 7410.6   6940.2   2713.8   2473.3  
N 7552   7551   2774   2774  
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.00